Tamils - a Trans State Nation..

"To us all towns are one, all men our kin.
Life's good comes not from others' gift, nor ill
Man's pains and pains' relief are from within.
Thus have we seen in visions of the wise !."
Tamil Poem in Purananuru, circa 500 B.C 

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Home > Struggle for Tamil Eelam > Conflict Resolution: Tamil Eelam - Sri Lanka  > Tracking the Norwegian Conflict Resolution Initiative > Early Beginnings...: 1996 - 1999  > LTTE's Military Victories & the International Response : 1999 - 2000 > LTTE's Unilateral Ceasefires: 2000 - 2001 > Sri Lanka Army suffers further major debacles: 2001 - 2002 > Ceasefire Agreement & Lifting of Ban on LTTE: 2002 > First Session of Peace Talks in Thailand & Aftermath: 2002 > Second Session of Peace Talks in Thailand & Aftermath: 2002 > Oslo Peace Support Meeting:2002 > Third Session of Peace Talks in Oslo & Aftermath: 2002 - 2003 > Fourth Session of Peace Talks in Thailand & Aftermath: 2003 > Fifth Session of Peace Talks in Germany & Aftermath: 2004 > Sixth Session of Talks in Japan & Aftermath: 2003 > LTTE Suspends Negotiations: 2003 > Interim Self Governing Authority & Aftermath: 2003 - 2004 > Tsunami & Aftermath: 2005 > Presidential Elections & Aftermath: 2005 - 2006 > Geneva Talks & Aftermath: 2006 - 2007> Ceasefire Agreement Buried:2006 - 2008

Tracking the Norwegian Conflict Resolution Initiative

Tsunami & Aftermath
1 January 2005 1500 U.S Marines to arrive in Sri Lanka [see also Tsunami & the People of Tamil Eelam]

"U.S Ambassador to Sri Lanka , Jeffrey Lunstead, U.S Commander of U.S Disaster Response Assessment Team (DRAT), Colonel Thomas Collins, and a USAID representative said in a press conference held at Hotel Galladhari in Colombo Saturday afternoon that 1300 U.S Marines are to arrive in Colombo in a U.S Essex class aircraft carrier, USS Bon Homme Richard, equipped with a helipad and supporting five helicopters on board. The Aircraft Carrier, USS Bon Homme Richard, which is to support full fledged U.S rescue operations in Galle, Amparai, Trincomalee and Jaffna coasts is also equipped with five small scale hovercrafts, the officials said in the press conference. The hovercrafts will engage in point to point rescue operations along the coasts, the officials added.A C-130 cargo carrier aircraft will also be supporting the rescue effort, the Ambassasdor said during the press conference.200 US Marines are expected to arrive on Sunday afternoon or Monday morning to setup the required Command and Control system for the rescue operations."

4 January 2005 Sri Lanka Rejects U.S. Rescue Fleet - Plans to put a Marine expeditionary unit ashore on Sri Lanka put on hold

Plans to put a Marine expeditionary unit ashore on Sri Lanka with heavy equipment, however, have been put on hold. After being informed that Colombo was scaling down its request for help, the Bonhomme Richard and another US warship cancelled plans to spearhead relief efforts off Sri Lanka�s coast and have instead joined the aircraft carrier Abraham Lincoln and its battle group off Sumatra... Though no firm plans had been set, due to the uncertainty of the situation, the Marines had hoped to put more than 1,000 troops ashore in Sri Lanka to help clear roads and build shelters for refugees.The Bonhomme Richard, carrying more than 1,300 Marines, has three hovercraft capable of putting the troops ashore by the hundred on almost any kind of beach.All are fully loaded and ready to go.But for the time being, that capability will not be used...Part of the reason is clearly political."

6 January 2005 No problems about U.S. troops in Sri Lanka for relief work, says India

India has no problems about American troops performing relief operations in the tsunami-affected Sri Lanka, the Foreign Secretary, Shyam Saran, said here today. He also said that the "core group" of nations coordinating relief operations � which included India and the United States � had been disbanded.

7 January 2005 US military presence will not affect Peace Process  says Colin Powell

"Pledging USD 25 million for immediate relief and reconstruction of Sri Lanka, US Secretaryof State Colin Powell said in a press briefing held at the runway at the Bandaranayake Memorial Airport, Katunayake Colombo, that US military presence will not affect the ongoing peace process. Responding to a question about how long the US military would stay, he said they would remain long as it is required by the Sri Lankan government and would ensure that the reconstruction and rehabilitation work is complete..."

10 January 2005 USS Duluth arrives in Sri Lanka

The United States Ship Duluth arrived off the coast of Galle on Sunday evening, carrying equipment and personnel to aid in the U.S. government's humanitarian relief operations in the tsunami-affected areas of the island. The Duluth, whose home port is San Diego, California, belongs to the Amphibious Transport Dock class of ships, designed to transport landing forces for a variety of missions, including humanitarian aid. The Duluth is carrying three CH-46E Sea Knight Helicopters, engineering and earthmoving equipment and over one hundred Marine personnel.

January 2005 The Sangha & its Relationship to the Peace Process in Sri Lanka - A Report for the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs - Iselin Frydenlund

"In the opinion of many monks, a decentralized political structure � for example, along federal lines � would contradict two basic tenets of Buddhist teaching: Sri Lanka as a sacred land and the Sinhala people as the protectors of Buddhism. This Sinhala Buddhist ideology is powerfully promoted by Buddhist pressure groups, which represent a numerically small yet influential part of the Sinhala electorate. The present study shows that previous peace processes in Sri Lanka have been spoiled by various Buddhist pressure groups that have opposed all attempts to devolve power and to make concessions to the ethnic minorities. Such groups are of considerable importance owing to their easy access to the pri-vately controlled Sinhala media, and furthermore because they are organized across internal divisions within the Buddhist monastic order, the Sangha. In addition, several of the pressure groups draw their members from both monks and laypeople, and they are often associated with particular political parties..."

8 February 2005 UN Secretary-General condemns the killings of Kousalyan and colleagues

"The Secretary-General condemns the killings of Mr. E. Kaushalyan, a senior political leader of the LTTE Eastern Province Division, and several colleagues traveling with him, when their vehicle came under attack yesterday evening. He extends his sincere condolences and deepest sympathies to the families of all the victims of these callous killings. The Secretary-General urges all parties to exercise calm and restraint so as to avoid actions that could disrupt the Cease-fire Agreement of February 2002 or the long-term interest of peace in Sri Lanka."

13 February 2005 Sri Lanka President warns main coalition partner

Sri Lanka�s President Chandrika Kumaratunga warned her main coalition partner that it can leave her government if it continues to obstruct her politically. .. she warned the Marxist Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP): "If they want to leave, let them leave. I cannot rule like this. They threaten to leave the government even over paltry issues. They are more interested in getting rid of me than doing away with Pirapaharan...When I try to work on a solution (to the ethnic conflict), they say no. no. They say this word is wrong. That letter is not right. They tell us to add this word or add that letter. It is farcical".. "I have to take strong action regardless of who they are. Give me your support. I want to settle this country�s problem before I go home"...

22 February 2005 War Remains an Option Three Years After Cease-fire
16 March 2005 Three years after the Ceasefire Agreement: Where have we gone? - Jayadeva Uyangoda,
30 March 2005 Peace & Surveillance: US gifts Coast Guard Surveillance Vessel, USS Courageous to Sri Lanka  

"Chief of Defence Staff (CDS) and the Commander of the Sri Lanka Navy, Vice Admiral Daya Sandagiri, said in Colombo that the inclusion of a 210 foot US Coastguard Vessel, USS Courageous  will increase our naval power by 75 percent.. Speaking to the media after the ceremony, US Ambassador Jeffrey Lunstead  was quoted by Sri Lanka State managed Daily News as saying: "I hope the newly added ship will protect Sri Lanka and will help to bring peace to the country. After all it is what we all want.."

1 April 2005 Federalism, Tamils and the Referendum Trap -   J. S. Tissainayagam, Northeastern Monthly

"..How will the referendum affect the Tamils of the northeast? The history of independent Sri Lanka has demonstrated that institutions of the central government � in whatever form � have failed to uphold the rights and liberties of the Tamil people. If there indeed were to be a majority in the Tamil areas for �federalism� at the referendum, the government would use it as a popular mandate not to implement devolution power, but as a verdict against separation. That is the trap in the referendum..."

27 May 2005 Chandrika�s Joint Mechanism & Tamil Aspirations
June 2005

Asymmetries in the peace process: the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam - Visuvanathan Rudrakumaran

12 June 2005 President gives assurance to consult Maha Sangha before signing Joint Mechanism: Fast unto death ends
12 June 2005 Something is rotten in the state of Sri Lanka - D.B.S.Jeyaraj
14 June 2005 Donors urge immediate signing of tsunami agreement
24 June 2005 Government of Sri Lanka and LTTE sign Post-Tsunami Operational Management Structure (P-TOMS)
  Text of Memorandum of Understanding for Establishment of a Post-Tsunami Operational Management Structure
  Sri Lanka Government Explains P-TOMS in Statement tabled in Sri Lanka House of Representatives

The United National Party &  P-TOMS - Having it Both Ways?

3 July 2005 ISGA & the Law - Professor M. Sornarajah

"If the GOSL wants to continue to have a meaningful role and prevent the exercise of the ultimate right of secession, it would be wise to participate in the process of setting up the ISGA. The longer it delays, the greater would the justification in terms of law for the LTTE to set up the ISGA on its own. The LTTE already has an administration. All that it has to do is to make that administration conform to the ISGA Proposals. If this were to happen, the schism between the two communities on the island would widen further."

10 July 2005  Sri Lanka President Kumaratunga wants joint mechanism amended to make the Treasury the Custodian of the Tsnumani Fund
  India and the Sri Lankan Peace Process - Lieutenant General (Retd.) V.R. Raghavan, Director, Delhi Policy Group  at Consultation on the International Dimensions of the Sri Lankan Peace Process

"..New Delhi needs always to be conscious of the impact of the Sri Lankan conflict on the Tamils in India. That political necessity and the security risks of Tamil separatist military capabilities impacting on Indian interests is one dimension of India�s policy choices. The political impasse in Sri Lanka on the Tamil question is another dimension. These two combine to lead New Delhi in choosing to play a carefully calibrated and restrained role in the Sri Lanka peace process..."

  Teresita C. Schaffer on Sri Lanka�s Peace Efforts: The View from a Distance at Consultation on the International Dimensions of the Sri Lankan Peace Process

"..What about the United States? The donor co-chairs� meeting last month in Washington demonstrated that the U.S. government is still interested in active participation, and prepared to work with both Sri Lanka and the other international players. But to keep the U.S. involved, it will be important to infuse the process with more momentum than it has showed for the past three years. A dynamic peace process, whatever its difficulties, will tend to accelerate; an anemic one will continue to slow down..."

15 July 2005 LTTE responds to GoSL proposals, calls for immediate action on travel restrictions for LTTE cadres

"The Secretary General has mentioned in his letter that as a democratically elected government, GOSL does not determine its actions on the basis of ultimatums. Ultimatum and definite time frames within which to accomplish certain requirements to maintain an agreement are two different matters and we wish to remind here that the Cease Fire Agreement itself has been premised on definite time frames. To amplify it, the CFA contains within it time frames stipulating moving away of the military from occupied positions in places of worship, schools and densely populated habitats and public buildings paving a way for restoration of normalcy. It is relevant to remind the Secretary General that it is on the acknowledgement of the ground reality of two power positions and territories being administered under their respective control, that the CFA has been formulated..."

15 July 2005 Sri Lanka's Supreme Court issues stay order against P-TOMS - Text of  Sri Lanka Supreme Court Decision on P-TOMS  
16 July 2005 Lesson from the Supreme Court Decision on P-TOMS

"..The constitution forced on Tamils by the Sinhala chauvinists and the laws within it are the root cause of the Tamil ethnic problem, their struggle, violation of their rights and their suppression. To find a solution to this problem one must step outside this constitution. There is no sense in searching for a solution to the problem while remaining tied up by the rules that caused the problems in the first instance. Be it the P-TOMS or the interim administration or a permanent solution it can be worked out only after stepping outside the constitution..."

  Ethnic Conflict, the State & the Tsunami Disaster in Sri Lanka  - Professor Jayadeva Uyangoda
21 July 2005 Sri Lanka President Kumaratunga & Sri Lanka Chief Justice Sarath Silva - Two Minds but a Single Thought? -  நான் பேச நினைப்பதெல்லாம் நீ பேச வேண்டும்
  Ana Pararajasingham  on The Failure of the Joint Mechanism: Lessons to be Learnt
27 July 2005 Tamil National Alliance Parliamentarian Gajendrakumar Ponnambalam - Briefing to US Congress Human Rights Caucus
8 August 2005 Norwegian-led monitors say Sri Lanka's ceasefire will hold despite increased tension.
13 August 2005 Assassination of Foreign Minister Lakshman Kadirgamar comes at a time when the peace process in Sri Lanka is in deep crisis. says Priyath Liyanage Editor, BBC Sinhala service
14 August 2005 Violence Returns to Sri Lanka's East

Mr. Anton Balasingham, the chief negotiator and political advisor of the LTTE said five Tamil paramilitary armed groups, including the Karuna group, are being paid and provided with logistic support by the Sri Lanka security forces in a covert military campaign" to destabilise the Eastern province and to paralyse the LTTE�s political engagement in the region."

16 August 2005 Implement ceasefire in full - UN Security Council The full text of the Security Council statement, issued by its President for August, Kenzo Oshima of Japan, follows:

"The members of the Security Council learned, with great sadness and a deep sense of loss, of the assassination of Lakshman Kadirgamar, Foreign Minister of Sri Lanka, on 12 August 2005. The members of the Security Council express their condolences and sympathy to his family and the people of Sri Lanka.

The members of the Security Council strongly condemn this senseless act of terrorism. They expect that the case will be speedily investigated and the perpetrators, organizers and their sponsors brought to justice.

The members of the Security Council call on the parties concerned to implement fully the provisions of the Cease-Fire Agreement and to continue their dialogue, in order to attain sustainable peace and stability in the country."

19 August 2005 LTTE agrees to participate in talks on Ceasefire Agreement

Mr. Anton Balasingham, the political advisor and the chief peace negotiator of the Liberation Tigers, said that the LTTE leadership has accepted the Norwegian invitation to "participate in a review of the implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement in order to find practical ways of ensuring full compliance by both parties." Mr. Jan Petersen, the Norwegian Foreign Minister, along with his deputy Mr. Vidar Helgesen met Mr Balasingham at his residence in London last Wednesday and handed over proposals to the LTTE leader Mr. Pirapaharan calling for urgent talks on problems relating to the implementation of the truce. The LTTE leader has positively considered the Norwegian proposals and agreed to send a high level delegation to participate in the talks with the Sri Lanka government, Mr. Balasingham said. The LTTE�s theoretician further revealed that the talks, facilitated by the Norwegians, would be held in Oslo within the next couple of weeks. The discussions will also focus on the escalating violence in the Northeast and other related issues.

21 August 2005 On Lakshman Kadirgamar & the Peace Process  - Somawansa Amarasinghe, Leader of the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna

"...We stood for administrative decentralization, he stood for federalism. We said how in Sri Lanka's context, federalism and separatism were entwined. He did not necessarily agree, but was eager to hear what we said. He considered them reasoned arguments... The LTTE should not be given visas by these countries. The JVP hopes to hold a major demonstration in London and in capitals of other countries for democracy and against the LTTE. We are asking Britain to deport Mr. Balasingham... If the LTTE resorts to war, as the signs indicate they will, we must prepare for self-defence. We must prepare now. The international community must support us in that legitimate self- defence..."

23 August 2005 JVP demonstrates against direct talks between GoSL and LTTE
25 August 2005 Sri Lanka says no to Oslo talks says BBC

Norwegian mediators have played a central role in the peace process
The Sri Lankan government has turned down a Tamil Tiger request to hold talks in Norway. The talks to discuss the implementation of the country's three and a half year ceasefire should be held in Sri Lanka, a government spokesman said. The Tigers agreed to talks last week following the assassination of the country's foreign minister Lakshman Kadirgamar.

25 August 2005 India, Lanka's Opposition agree on peace process says P.K.Balachandran in Hindustan Times

"According to sources, the Indian leaders expressed concern about the "over internationalisation" of the Sri Lankan peace process. ... New Delhi is said to be unhappy with the performance of the "co-chair" of the June 2003 Tokyo Aid Lanka conference. The co-chair (US, EU, Japan and Norway) have arrogated to themselves a role not assigned to them. They style themselves as the "international community" and strut about as the "co-chair of the Sri Lankan peace process". India feels that they have been pampering the LTTE a bit too much and have been ineffective..." more

27 August 2005 M.R. Narayan Swamy (IANS), reports from New Delhi in the Hindustan Times - Western diplomats must boycott LTTE, says Colombo
August 2005  Aid, Conflict and Peacebuilding in Sri Lanka, 2000 � 2005, - Jonathan Goodhand and Bart Klem with Dilrukshi Fonseka, S.I. Keethaponcalan, and Shonali Sardesai
8 September 2005 Sri Lanka Peace Process: Role of the International Community - Jayantha Dhanapala - US Congessional Briefing
8 September 2005 International Community and Sri Lanka: Playing a Modest Hand Better - Teresita C. Schaffer
8 September 2005 Agreement between SLFP Presidential Nominee, Mahinda Rajapakse  & JVP
8 September 2005 Sri Lankan Prime Minister - and Presidential election candidate - Mahinda Rajapakse signs a deal with the Sinhala nationalist JVP.

"It is agreed to protect, defend and preserve the unitary nature of the Sri Lankan state under any solution to be presented, formed or formulated for the purpose of the resolution of the national question," the agreement states. The deal signed on Thursday (8 September) also commits Mr Rajapakse, if elected, to scrap the post-tsunami aid-sharing deal. Leader of the JVP - or People's Liberation Front - Somawansa Amarasinghe said that his party were not afraid of war. "You can't bring peace by being afraid of war," he said.

10 September 2005 Election campaign should not jeopardize peace prospects- Schaffer

12 September 2005 Response to Jayantha Dhanapala's Congressional Briefing - Victor Rajakulendran
12 September 2005 Sri Lanka Peace Process: Problems & Prospects - Jayantha Dhanapala at Asia Society
12 September 2005 Main Stream Exrtremism - Peace Process faces Difficult Future - Tamil Guardian
13 September 2005 Rajapakse, JHU exchange agreement

Prime Minister Rajapakse of Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP) and Ellawela Methantha Thera of Jathika Hela Urumaya (JHU) exchanged agreement for the forthcoming Presidential election at Dalada Maligawa, Kandy Tuesday morning at 11.30am. The parties agreed in principle to terminate talks on the Post Tsunami Operational Management Structure (P-TOMS) and to find a solution to the ethnic crisis on the basis of a unitary state.

13 September 2005 ஜயந்த தனபாலவின் குற்றச்சாட்டுக்கள்
14 September 2005 For Larger Freedoms: Pursuit of Peace in Sri Lanka -  President Chandrika Kumaratunga at Asia Society, New York
15 September 2005 At the United Nations General Assembly:  President Chandrika Kumaratunga -on Vulnerable Democracies & Terrorism
17 September 2005 An embodiment of antimony - Thamilchelvan on Kumaratunga's speeches in New York
19 September 2005 Co-Chairs of the Tokyo Donor Conference - Statement issued US Embassy in Colombo
20 September 2005

Presidential Election In Sri Lanka: Tweedledum & Tweedeldee? - Sam Rajappa in the Statesman

21 September 2005 Rising Challenge - Tamil Guardian

"...Whereas to the international community and the island�s minorities, federalism is not division, to the Sinhala ultra-nationalists bearing him aloft, it most certainly is. Even if Ranil Wickremesinghe wins � an increasingly unlikely proposition � the Sinhala nationalists will yet undermine the peace process. The ignominious fate of the Post-Tsunami Operational Management Structure (P-TOMS) is likely to befall every advance in the peace process..."

6 October 2005 Tamil National Question & EU Declaration - TamilNet Interview with V.Navaratnam

 "...Enough is enough. I have not reached my 96 years in this world with my eyes shut. I have seen enough of the Senanayakes, Bandaranaikes, Ratwattes, Kotalawelas, Jayawardenes, Wickramasinghes, Premadasas, Pereras and Silvas. There is no denying that they are all genuine, sincere patriots, every one of them - but Sinhalese, not Ceylonese..."

15 October 2005 Foreign forces in Lanka will mar peace process: Norway
18 October 2005 "Rajapakse rejects Tamil autonomy " reports BBC
21 October 2005 Jaffna daily Uthayan assails "Mahinda Doctrine"

"...Mr Mahinda Rajapakse has brought the Sinhala approach to resolving the Tamil National question a full circle by rejecting the concepts of Tamil home land, right to self determination, federal solution, and the P-TOMS, and re-affirming Tamils belief that the Sinhala south is incapable of shedding the chauvinist mindset, said the editorial of the popular Jaffna Tamil daily 'Uthayan' in its Thursday edition. "The manifesto of the Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP) Presidential candidate which is claimed to contain 'Mahinda Doctrine' represents the thinking of a section of the Sinhala south. It represents the collective thoughts of SLFP, Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP), Jathika Hela Urumaya (JHU), and constituent leftist parties of the United Peoples Front Alliance (UPFA) and also that of Mr.Vasudeva Nanayakkara," the editiorial said.

25 October 2005 Fostering political transformation, key to peace - Professor Stokke

" As a practical step for the peace process to make progress, southern polity should mature to provide "political space" for the Sri Lankan government to conduct substantive peace negotiations. This is essential in addition to the most basic precondition that the protagonists be seriously committed to peace and perceive each other as being fully dedicated to resolving the conflict, he says..."

4 November 2005 �The Sri Lanka Peace Process: Dead end or is there hope?� Forum organised by Centre for Strategic and International Studies in association with East-West Centre
8 November 2005 UNP Leader Milinda Moragoda admits to Karuna Group Support

"...When asked about the fate of the Karuna Group in the event of Wickremesinghe�s win, Moragoda claimed that the Karuna Group was a product of the peace process of which the UNP was instrumental in creating. Moragoda asserted that the government delegation of the peace talks predicted the creation of Karuna Group. Fellow UNP leader Naveen Dissanayake also claimed in a recent campaign speech in Hatton that UNP created the Karuna faction.

Moragoda spoke about Wickremesinghe �creating the right environment� so �even a cadre who had seen all these positive changes would think twice because he has been offered an alternative to their resolve to die for a cause.� Moragoda insinuated that the �right environment� is one which undermines the people�s resolve to struggle. Moragoda claimed that the role of the peace process and �silencing guns, opening roads and removing barricades� will weaken the LTTE, and not offer any means that will engage them in the peace process. In addition to his statements on weakening the LTTE, Moragoda acknowledged their role in �intercepting (destroying) several LTTE ships with the help of an international intelligence network.� He added that the SLA will not be downsized and in fact will be built up by acquiring more human and material resources. .."

[see also We trapped and split LTTE, sank their ships, says UNP ]

  Donors and Peace Building
5 November 2005 Transition from Civil War to Peace - Professor Jayadeva Uyangoda


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