Tamils - a Trans State Nation..

"To us all towns are one, all men our kin.
Life's good comes not from others' gift, nor ill
Man's pains and pains' relief are from within.
Thus have we seen in visions of the wise !."
Tamil Poem in Purananuru, circa 500 B.C 

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Nations & Nationalism

"Bullets and borders: The nation-state is on its last legs - but people are still prepared to die for their country." Nikki van der Gaag in the New Internationalist, 1996  

[see also Nations & Nationalism: What is a Nation? - Nadesan Satyendra ]

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*Alter, Nora M. and Lutz Koepnick (eds): Sound Matters: Essays on the Acoustics of Modern German Culture. New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2004.

*Alter, Peter - Nationalism, Edward Arnold, 1989

"....The stability of post-colonial borders (which have also been maintained because the new states insisted the United Nations do so) says nothing at all, however, about the success of nation building in the Third World. It is a process not far advanced in most cases, and therefore unrest and conflict continually come to the surface in these parts of the world. Countries such as India, Sri Lanka, Nigeria, Sudan and Cameroon are all products of colonialism; they are conglomerates of numerous peoples and tribes, linguistic and religious minorities. By comparison, the nationality problems that brought down Europe's old multinational empires at the end of the First World War appear mere trivia. It is clear that these states can only temporarily manage to contain tensions that exist between their various constituent groups. Forty years after the sub-continent was released from British colonial rule, the central government in India, for example, is burdened by the desire of states such as Assam and Nagaland and religious minorities such as the Sikhs to secede from the republic. Whether India is a multilingual nation or a multinational state is still open to debate. The only conclusion the history of twentieth-century southern Asia prompts is that nationalism has been an effective weapon for liberation from colonial rule; but in most cases has been powerless to build and sustain a solid political order. Sri Lanka, politically united again under British rule after having been divided into small kingdoms for centuries, is today threatened by civil war between the Buddhist Sinhalese and the Tamil minority..."

*Anderson, Benedict - Imagined Communities : Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism  / Paperback / Published 1983

*Axel, Brian Keith. - The Nation's Tortured Body: Violence, Representation, and the Formation of a Sikh "Diaspora"ASEN: Association for the Study of Ethnicity and Nationalism  18th Annual Conference,2008 on  Nationalism, East and West: Civic and Ethnic Conceptions of Nationhood: Abstracts of Conference Papers

* Babejova, Eleonora. Fin-De-Sicle Pressburg *Gopal Balakrishnan et al - Mapping the Nation, 1996 ISBN-10: 1859840604; ISBN-13: 978-1859840603

*Barth, Fredrik, Andre Gingrich, Robert Parkin and Sydel Silverman. One Discipline, Four Ways: British, German, French, and American Anthropology (Halle Lectures)* Timothy Baycroft Nationalism in Europe 1789-1945 (Cambridge Perspectives in History)* Timothy Baycroft and Mark Hewitson - What Is a Nation?: Europe 1789-1914*Timothy Baycroft - Culture, Identity and Nationalism: French Flanders in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (Royal Historical Society Studies in History New Series)*Benner, Erica. Really Existing Nationalisms*Bell, David A. The Cult of the Nation in France: Inventing Nationalism, 1680-1800*Beiner, Ronald, ed. Theorizing Nationalism (Suny Series in Political Theory, Contemporary Issues) *Billig, Michael: Banal Nationalism*Biondich, Mark. Stjepan Radic, Stjepan Radic,The Croat Peasant Party and the Politics of Mass Mobilization,1904-1928 *Blum, Edward J. Reforging the White Republic: Race, Religion, and American Nationalism, 1865-1898 (Conflicting Worlds: New Dimensions of the American Civil War)*Borntraeger, Ekkehard W. Borders, Ethnicity and National Self-Determination. Vienna: Baumueller, 1999.

*Boyce, D. George. Nationalism in Ireland *Brass, Paul R. Ethnicity and Nationalism: Theory and Comparison*Brehony, K. J. and N. Rassool, ed. Nationalisms Old and New (Explorations in Sociology)* John Breuilly - Nationalism and the State, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985.

Brown, Keith. The Past in Question: Modern Macedonia and the Uncertainties of Nation*Brown, Michael E, (Editor), et al - Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict : An International Security Reader

* Brubaker, Rogers. Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe*Bruce, Steve. The Edge of the Union: The Ulster Loyalist Political Vision*Buchheit, Lee C -   Secession: The Legitimacy of Self-Determination

*Burns, Jimmy. Bar�a: Barca: A People's Passion*Cairns, Alan C. Citizens Plus: Aboriginal Peoples and the Canadian State*Calhoun,  Craig - Nationalism (Concepts in Social Thought Series) Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1997.

*Canovan, Margaret,  - Nationhood and Political Theory, October 1998

"...What is a nation? As all commentators on nations and nationalism agree, this is a subject on which it is extraordinarily hard to get a conceptual grip. Not that defining political phenomena is ever easy: any attempt to encapsulate a complex and variable phenomenon in a definition invites counter-examples, while the form of words chosen often has controversial political overtones. But the bulk of the literature on nationhood breathes an air of frustration that seems to have two sources, a sense that there is something peculiarly elusive about nations, reinforced by the feeling that they are in any case such ramshackle constructions of myth and illusion that they scarcely deserve serious analysis. This sense that there is something particularly odd about nationhood can only be increased by the perspective that I have so far adopted, since I have been implying on the one hand that its capacity to generate the political power presupposed by liberal democratic political theory makes nationhood highly significant, and on the other hand that this vitally important political phenomenon is nevertheless so unobtrusive that most political theorists somehow fail to notice it. I shall argue that all these peculiarities are interconnected, that the power of nationhood is indeed linked with its elusiveness, and that nations are exceedingly complex phenomena, the key to which lies in their ability to mediate between different aspects of social and political life..."

*Chatterjee, Partha - Nationalist Thought & the Colonial World - A Derivative Discourse published by Zed Books Ltd. for the United Nations University, 1986

"Nationalism denied the alleged inferiority of the colonised people; it also asserted that a backward nation could 'modernise' itself while retaining its cultural identity. It thus produced a discourse in which, even as it challenged the colonial claim to political domination, it also accepted the very intellectual premises of 'modernity' on which colonial domination was based. How are we to sort out these contradictory elements in nationalist discourse?.. how does one accept what is valuable in another's culture without losing one's own cultural identity?..."

From the backcover: Partha Chatterjee ... criticises Western theories of Third World nationalism - both liberal and Marxist. He demonstrates how Western theorists, with their emphasis on the power of reason, the primacy of the hard sciences and the dominance of the empirical method, have assumed that their presuppositions are universally valid, and, through the impact of Western education, have imposed concepts of nationalism on non-Western peoples to the detriment, if not destruction, of their own world-views. The author explores the central contradiction that nationalism in Africa and Asia has consequently experienced: setting out to assert its freedom from European domination, it yet remained a prisoner of European post-Enlightenment rationalist discourse... It anticipates a new generation of popular struggles that will redefine the content of Afro-Asian nationalism and the kinds of society people wish to build....

Professor Chatterjee trained in the United States, and has taught at many institutions including the Universities of Rochester and Amritsar. He has held visiting appointments at St Antony's College, Oxford, and the Australian National University, Among his many published works are Arms, Alliances and Stability (1975), The Stat of Political Theory (1987)(co-author), and Bengal 1920-1947: the Land question (1984). He is a member of the editorial group of Subaltern Studies: Writings on South Asian History and Society. He is currently Professor of Political Science at the Centre for Studies in Social Sciences in Calcutta.

*Chatterjee, Partha - The Nation and Its Fragments : Colonial and Postcolonial Histories (Princeton Studies in Culture/Power/History) / Paperback / Published 1993

* Chatterjee, Partha  - The Partha Chatterjee Omnibus: Comprising Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World, the Nation and Its Fragments, a Possible India

Cocks, Joan. Passion and Paradox: Intellectuals Confront the National Question Making Subject(s): Literature and the Emergence of National Identity.(Review): An article from: Comparative Drama*Connor, Walker  - Ethnonationalism : The Quest for Understanding,1994

*Connor, Walker  - The National Question in Marxist-Leninist Theory and Strategy, 1984 ISBN-10: 0691101639; 
ISBN-13: 978-0691101637 

"From a review by  James C Voorhees: 'Walker Connor has been writing about ethno nationalism for decades. This is a much needed collection of his essays. They are well written and closely argued. The importance of his arguments for understanding ethnic conflicts in today's world can scarcely be overstated. If you believe that ethnicity and ethnic conflict can be explained by such easily defined things as differences in language, religion, or skin color, you must read this book.'"

Confino, Alon. The Nation as a Local Metaphor: Wurttemberg, Imperial Germany, and National Memory, 1871-1918 . London and New York: Routledge, 2002.

Conversi, Daniele. The Basques, The Catalans, and Spain: Alternative Routes to Nationalist Mobilisation. London: Hurst & Company, 1997.

Cooper, Robert. Language Planning and Social Change. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Coogan, Tim Pat. The IRA: A History. Revised Edition ed. Niwot, Colorado: Roberts Rinehart, 1994.

Corse, Sarah M. Nationalism and Literature: The Politics of Culture in Canada and the United States. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Crawford, James, The Creation of States in International Law, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1979

"Since the development of the modern international system, statehood has been regarded as the paramount type of international personality; indeed, in doctrine if not in practice, States were for a time regarded as the only international persons. This is no longer so; but the political paramountcy of States over other international actors, with whatever qualifications, continues, and Statehood remains the central type of legal personality. Problems of definition and of application of the definition, of statehood thus occupy an important place in the structure of international law....Perhaps the most controversial issue in this area is the relationship between statehood and recognition..."

Cronin, Mike. Sport and Nationalism in Ireland: Gaelic Games, Soccer and Irish Identity since 1884. Dublin: Four Courts Press, 1999.

Cusack, Tricia and S�ghle Bhreathnach-Lynch. Art, Nation and Gender: Ethnic Landscapes, Myths and Mother-Figures. Burlington, VT: Ashgate. 2003.

*Cubitt, Geoffrey, (Editor)  Imagining Nations (York Studies in Cultural History)  / Hardcover / Published 1998

* Cvetkovich, Ann, Douglas Kellner,  Articulating the Global and the Local : Globalization and Cultural Studies (Cultural Studies Series)   / Paperback / Published 1997

Dahbour, Omar and Ishay, Micheline R., ed. The Nationalism Reader*Karl Wolfgang Deutsch - Nationalism and Social Communication, Second Edition : An Inquiry into the Foundations of Nationality

Etlin, Richard A. (ed.). Art, Culture, and Media under the Third Reich. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002.

*Eley, Geoff and Suny, Ronald Grigor, ed. Becoming National : A Reader  New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996

*Emerson, Rupert - From Empire to Nation: The Rise of Self-Assertion of Asian and African Peoples.

Finnan, Joseph P. John Redmond and Irish Unity, 1912-1918. Irish Studies Series. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 2004.

Fritzsche, Peter. Germans into Nazis. Cambridge and London: Harvard University Press, 1998.

Frommer, Benjamin. National Cleansing: Retribution against Nazi Collaborators in Postwar Czechoslovakia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

* Fuglerud, Ivind, Oivind Fuglerud - Life on the Outside : The Tamil Diaspora and Long-Distance Nationalism (Anthropology, Culture and Society)  / Paperback / Published: June 1999(**alternative link to Amazon.co.uk)

"....Exile is not primarily a geographical location, it is a state of mind through which one becomes what one has left behind. In the Tamil case many actually become what they have fled from. Between the extremes of the warrior and the victim the refugee must carry out his 'bricolage', assemble the pieces and carry on. For many this life project takes the form of internalised martyrdom, the fight for Eelam being replaced by a longing for Eelam which grows into a constant part of the personality and becomes a counterweight, the counterweight, to the vicissitudes of exile. What is characteristic of the Tamil exile situation, therefore, is a blurring of 'here' and 'there'; the dismembering of social networks, the re-membering of an imaginary homeland, the attachment of an imagined community to an imagined place. It is that from which they are excluded which makes them not only 'refugees' but ' Tamil refugees'...The grand narrative of revolutionary nationalism is adapted, by refugees who accept it, to provide a genesis of the diaspora....'When the atrocities of the Sinhalese terrorists increased, to protect our lives we fled...' This explanation goes beyond scientific history and represents a 'mythico-history'. Not because it is untrue but because the Tamils as a people are here heroised and placed within a more encompassing moral ordering of the world  where relationships and processes are reinterpreted within a dichotomy of good and evil...."

Gellner, Ernest, Professor of Social Anthropology at Cambridge University  *Nations and Nationalism  Basil Blackwell, Paperback, 1983 (**alternate link to Amazon.co.uk bookshop)

"....What then is this contingent, but in our age seemingly universal and normative, idea of the nation? Discussion of two very makeshift, temporary definitions will help to pinpoint this elusive concept.

(1) Two men are of the same nation if and only if they share the same culture, where culture in turn means a system of ideas and signs and associations and ways of behaving and communicating. 

(2 )Two men are of the same nation if and only if they recognize each other as belonging to the same nation. In other words, nations maketh man; nations are the artefacts of men's convictions and loyalties and solidarities.

A mere category of persons (say, occupants of a given territory, or speakers of a given language, for example) becomes a nation if and when the members of the category firmly recognize certain mutual rights and duties to each other in virtue of their shared membership of it. It is their recognition of each other as fellows of this kind which turns them into a nation, and not the other shared attributes, whatever they might be, which separate that category from non-members.

Each of these provisional definitions, the cultural and the voluntaristic, has some merit. Each of them singles out an element which is of real importance in the understanding of nationalism. But neither is adequate. Definitions of culture, presupposed by the first definition, in the anthropological rather than the normative sense, are notoriously difficult and unsatisfactory. It is probably best to approach this problem by using this term without attempting too much in the way of formal definition, and looking at what culture does..."

**Gellner, Ernest, Professor of Social Anthropology at Cambridge University - Plough, Sword, and Book : The Structure of Human History

*Gellner, Ernest - Nations and Nationalism (New perspectives on the past)

*Gilbert, Paul  - Peoples, Cultures, and Nations in Political Philosophy, July 2000

*Gilbert, Paul. The Philosophy Of Nationalism*Greenfeld, Liah - Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity

* Greenfeld, Liah -.The Spirit of Capitalism : Nationalism and Economic Growth

Gross, Jan. Neighbors - The Destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland. Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 2001.

* Guibernau, Montserrat - Nations without States: Political Communities in a Global Age, 1999

"Montserrat Guibernau has written a clear, succinct and stimulating analysis of the politics of stateless nations. Her book should be recommended reading for courses in ethnicity and nationalism in Europe and should have a wide appeal to professionals and students in the social and political sciences." Anthony D. Smith, London School of Economics [note by tamilnation.org - A must read book for those concerned with furthering their understanding of the Fourth World: Nations without a State. see also Nations & Nationalism]

* Guibernau, Montserrat  and John Hutchinson - History and National Destiny: Ethnosymbolism and its Critics

'For ethno-symbolists, what gives nationalism its power are the myths, memories, traditions, and symbols of ethnic heritages and the ways in which a popular living past has been, and can be, rediscovered and reinterpreted by modern nationalist intelligentsias. It is from these elements of myth, memory, symbol and tradition that modern national identities are reconstituted in each generation, as the nation becomes more inclusive and as its members cope with new challenges'  more

*Guibernau, M..Montserrat  and I.Berdun(Editor), et al - The Ethnicity Reader : Nationalism, Multiculturalism and Migration  / Paperback / Published 1997

*Hall,John A.  (Editor) - The State of the Nation : Ernest Gellner and the Theory of Nationalism, (1998).

* Haas, Ernst B. - Nationalism, Liberalism and Progress: Volume 1 The Rise and Decline of Nationalism (Cornell Studies in Political Economy)

*Haas, Ernst B., Peter J. Katzenstein -  Nationalism, Liberalism, and Progress, Volume 2 : The Dismal Fate of New Nations

*Hannan, Kevin. Borders of Language and Identity in Teschen Silesia (Berkeley Insights in Linguistics and Semiotics)*Hastings, Adrian  - The Construction of Nationhood : Ethnicity, Religion and Nationalism (Wiles Lectures, 1996.)

Hardgrave, Robert L - The Dravidian Movement, 1965

* Hechter, Michael  Internal colonialism: The Celtic fringe in British national development, 1536-1966 (International library of sociology)* Hechter, Michael. Containing NationalismA Jewish State: An Attempt at a Modern Solution of the Jewish Question

*Hobsbawm, Eric J. Emeretius Professor of Economic and Social History, Birkbeck College, University of London  - Nations and Nationalism Since 1780 : Programme, Myth, Reality (Canto Series) / Paperback, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Isaacs, Herold. Idols of the Tribe. New York: Harper & Row, 1975.

* Atsuko Ichijo - When is the Nation?: Towards an Understanding of Theories of Nationalism, 2005 ISBN-10: 0415361214, ISBN-13: 978-0415361217 

Jaszi, Oscar. The Dissolution of the Habsburg Monarchy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971 (5th edition).

* Jayawardena, Kumari. Feminism and Nationalism in the Third World (Third World Books)* Kedourie, Elie - Nationalism, Fourth ed. Oxford UK and Cambridge USA: Blackwell, 1993.

Kazin, Michael and Joseph McCartin (eds). Americanism: New Perspectives on the History of an Ideal. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006.

Kenny, Kevin. Ireland and the British Empire. Oxford History of the British Empire Companion Series. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.

King, Charles. The Moldovans: Romania, Russia and the Politics of Culture. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1999.

Kissane, Bill. The Politics of the Irish Civil War. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Kitchen, Martin. A History of Modern Germany 1800-2000. Malden: Blackwell, 2006.

Krapauskas, Virgil. Nationalism and Historiography: The Case of Nineteenth-Century Lithuanian Historicism. Boulder: East European Monographs, Distributed by Columbia University Press, 2000.

Kristeva, Julia. Nations without Nationalism. Translated by Leon S. Roudiez. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

*Y. N. Kly (Preface), D. Kly, Richard Falk -  In Pursuit of the Right to Self-Determination Collected Papers of the First International Conference, 2000

Hans Kohn -

*The Age of Nationalism : The First Era of Global History (**alternate link to Amazon.co.uk bookshop)

*Nationalism and Realism : 1852-1879 / Paperback / Published 1968

*The Idea of Nationalism: A Study in Its Origins and Background (Social Science Classics Series) 1944 

"...Nationalism is first and foremost a state of mind, an act of consciousness... the mental life of man is as much dominated by an ego-consciousness as it is by a group consciousness. Both are complex states of mind at which we arrive through experiences of differentiation and opposition, of the ego and the surrounding world, of the we group and those outside the group. It is a fact often commented upon that this growth of nationalism and of national sectionalisms happened at the very same time when international relations,trade, and communications were developing as never before; that local languages were raised to the dignity of literary and cultural languages just at the time when it seemed most desirable to efface all differences of language by the spread of world languages. This view overlooks the fact that that very growth of nationalism all over the earth, with its awakening of the masses to participation in political and cultuarl life, prepared the way for the closer cultural contacts of all the civilisations of mankind, at the same time separating and uniting them...."

*Prophets and peoples : studies in nineteenth century nationalism

*Krishan Kumar, et al - The Making of English National Identity (Cambridge Cultural Social Studies)

*Kenneth R. Minogue -  Nationalism

*Michael Hechter - Containing Nationalism

*Donald L. Horowitz - Ethnic Groups in Conflict, Updated Edition With a New Preface

*Walter Laquer A History of Zionism  Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London

History of Zionism"...Zionism is the belief in the existence of a common past and a common future for the Jewish people. Such faith can be accepted or rejected, it can be a matter of rational argument only to a very limited extent... As far as national movements go, myths are always more powerful motives than rational arguments... The Zionists believed with Mazzini that without a country, they were bound to remain the bastards of humanity. Others did not accept the idea of a national state as a historical necessity..."

Laitin, David. Language Repertoires. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Layoun, Mary N. Wedded to the Land? Gender, Boundaries, and Nationalism in Crisis. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2001.

Levy, Jacob. The Multiculturalism of Fear. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Livezeanu, Irina. Cultural Politics in Greater Romania: Regionalism, Nation-Building and Ethnic Struggle, 1918-1930. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1995.

Lord, Christopher and Olga Strietska-Ilina, ed. Parallel Cultures: Majority/Minority Relations in the Countries of the Former Eastern Bloc. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2001.

*McPherson, James M. - Is Blood Thicker Than Water? : Crises of Nationalism in the Modern World  / Paperback / Published 1999

*Meyer, Birgit (Editor), Peter Geschiere (Editor) - Globalization and Identity : Dialectics of Flow and Closure  / Paperback / Published 1999  

*James Minahan, Leonard W. Doob (Introduction) - Nations without States  January 1996

"The book surveys the current status of 210 nations that are not states, and which are not recognized by major countries as being independent political entities. Appendices list declarations of independence by nonstate nations since 1890, geographical distribution, and nationalist organizations.  Minahan discusses the problems involved in establishing criteria for inclusion. Antarctica, for example, publishes postage stamps, but has no citizens; Palestine has embassies but is not an independent state... "

*Moore, Margaret (Editor) - National Self-Determination and Secession, 1998

This is an important book and will be essential reading for many in the Tamil diaspora. It contains a collection of articles on the central issues relating to national self determination and secession. Do nations have a right to collective self-determination?  If they do, what is it about nations that entitles them to this right? If not, are there any conditions in which a group can justifiably secede from a state? ... more

*Moore, Margaret. The Ethics of Nationalism*Tom Nairn - Faces of Nationalism : Janus Revisited  / Paperback / Published 1998

Nagy-Talavera, Nicholas M. The Green Shirts and the Others: A History of Fascism in Hungary and Romania. Iasi: Center for Romanian Studies, 2001.

Names, Robert. The Once and Future Budapest. Dekalb, Illinois: Northern Illinois University Press, 2005.

Nandy, Ashis. The Illegitimacy of Nationalism: Rabindranath Tagore and the Politics of Self. Delhi, Oxford University Press, 1994.

Nercessian, Andy. The Duduk and National Identity in Armenia. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press, 2001.

Ozkirimli, Umut. Theories of Nationalism: A Critical Overview. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2000.

*Sukumar Periwal (Editor)  - Notions of Nationalism published by Central European University Press, Budapest, London, New York, 1995

"In recent years, following the end of the cold war and the relative simplicities of the bipolar confrontation, nationalism has re-emerged as a dominant force and ideology in our world. Everywhere, peoples who had been confined within the borders of countries with which they did not identify, and whose regimes they intensely disliked, have been seeking self-determination and democracy. Notions of Nationalism, as the title implies, is an exploration of a phenomenon that all of us need to understand." more

Pandian, Jacob - Caste, nationalism, and ethnicity : an interpretation of Tamil cultural history and social order

*Sukumar Periwal - Notions of Nationalism

*Norman Rich - Age of Nationalism and Reform, 1850-1890  / Paperback / Published 1980

*Dov Ronen The Quest for Self-Determination , 1979

*Rothschild, Joseph. - Ethnopolitics: A Conceptual Framework

* Andreas Pickel (ed) Economic Nationalism In A Globalizing World (Cornell Studies in Political Economy) நாம் தமிழர்: We Tamils  English Translation by Dr.Manoharan

* Sankaran, Krishna - Postcolonial Insecurities: India, Sri Lanka, and the Question of Nationhood University of Minnesota Press,1999 [**also at amazon.co.uk] [suggested by a visitor to the site]

From the Publishers Note: "This ambitious work explores the vexed connections among nation-building, ethnic identity, and regional conflict by focusing on a specific event: Indian political and military intervention in the ethnic conflict between the Sinhalese and Tamils in Sri Lanka. Drawing on interviews with leading players in the Indian-Sri Lankan debacle, Sankaran Krishna offers a persuasive analysis of this episode. The intervention serves as a springboard to a broader inquiry into the interworkings of nation-building, ethnicity, and "foreign" policy. Krishna argues that the modernist effort to construct nation-states on the basis of singular notions of sovereignty and identity has reached a violent dead end in the postcolonial world of South Asia. Showing how the nationalist agenda that seeks to align territory with identity has unleashed a spiral of regional, statist, and insurgent violence, he makes an eloquent case for reimagining South Asia along postnational lines-as a "confederal" space. Postcolonial Insecurities counters the perception of "ethnicity" as an inferior and subversive principle compared with the progressive ideal of the "nation." Krishna, in fact, shows ethnicity to be indispensable to the production and reproduction of the nation itself. Sankaran Krishna is associate professor of political science at the University of Hawaii at Manoa."

Schama, Simon. A History of Britain Volume II: The Wars of the British, 1603-1776. New York: Talk Miramax Books, 2001.

Schlink, Bernhard. Heimat Als Utopie. Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp, 2002.

Searle-White, Josh. The Psychology of Nationalism. New York: Palgrave/St. Martin's Press, 2001.

Seton-Watson, Hugh * Nations & States - Methuen, London 1977

Shatzmiller, Maya (ed.). Nationalism and Minority Identities in Islamic Societies. Series in Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queens University Press, 2005.

Singh, Gurharpal. Ethnic Conflict in India: a case-study of Punjab. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2000.

Sisson, Elaine. Pearse's Patriots: St. Enda's and the Cult of Boyhood. Cork: Cork University Press, 2004.

Anthony D. Smith - London School of Economics

* Ethno-symbolism and Nationalism - A Cultural Approach, 2009

*National Identity National Identity (Ethnonationalism in Comparative Perspective)  1991/ Paperback /May 1991

Ethnicity and Nationalism edited by Anthony D. Smith, - International Studies in Sociology and Social Anthropology, Volume LX, published by E.J.Brill, Leiden, New York, Koln, 1992

"... What, I think, distinguishes the last twenty years from earlier periods in the study of nationalism is the growing convergence of two fields, which had been formerly treated as separate: the study of ethnicity and ethnic community, and the analysis of national identity and nationalism. The former had been largely the preserve of anthropologists and social psychologists, and had focused on small-scale communities, often in Third World areas. The latter had been the province of historians, for whom the ideology (and ethics) of nationalism was paramount. Nationalism was seen as a 'force', non-logical if not irrational, one which swept away traditional barriers and ushered in a new era of national conflicts and mass terror, a view reinforced by nationalism's alleged role in two World Wars..." more

*Nations and Nationalism in a Global Era /Paperback /February 1996

"...the nation is historically embedded. It is the modern heir and transformation of the much older and commoner ethnie and as such gathers to itself all the symbols and myths of pre-modern ethnicity. Combining these pre-modern ties and sentiments with the explosive modern charge of popular sovereignty and mass, public culture, nationalism has created a unique modern drama of national liberation and popular mobilization in an ancestral homeland. The older myths of ethnic election... have not withered away. Nationalism has given them a new lease of life, inspiring a yearning for collective regeneration in the homeland and for salvation of the national elect provided they repossess their authentic identity and ancestral soil..."

*Ethnicity (Oxford Readers) / Paperback / Published 1996 John Hutchinson(Editor), Anthony D. Smith (Editor)

* The Ethnic Origins of Nations  Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1998

*Nationalism and Modernism : A Critical Survey of Recent Theories of Nations and Nationalism November 1998

*Myths and Memories of the Nation, /Paperback / December 1999

*The Nation in History : Historiographical Debates About Ethnicity and Nationalism / Hardcover /July 2000

*Nationalism : Critical Concepts in Political Science - John Hutchinson (Editor), Anthony D. Smith (Editor) Hardcover (January 2000)

* Nationalism: Theory, Ideology, History (Key Concepts)*Chosen Peoples: Sacred Sources of National Identity. 2004

* Cultural Foundations of Nations: Hierarchy, Covenant and Republic, 2008

*Jeremy Smith - The Bolsheviks and the National Question, 1917-23 (Studies in Russia and East Europe)  / Hardcover / Published 1999

*Zlatko Skrbis - Long-Distance Nationalism : Diasporas, Homelands and Identities (Research in Migration and Ethnic Relations Series) / Hardcover / Published 1999

*Ronald Grigor Suny (Editor), Michael D. Kennedy (Editor) - Intellectuals and the Articulation of the Nation / Hardcover / Published 1999

*Sofos, Spyros A., and Brian Jenkins, eds. Nation and Identity in Contemporary Europe*Spencer, Philip and Howard Wollman. Nationalism: A Critical Introduction*Spencer, Philip and Howard Wollman. Nations And Nationalism: A Reader* Ian Talbot  India and Pakistan (Inventing the Nation), 2001

Tamir, Yael. Liberal Nationalism (Studies in Moral, Political, and Legal Philosophy) Croatia: A Nation Forged in War, Second Edition Republics, Nations and Tribes: The Ancient City and the Modern World Rebel Hearts: Journeys Within the IRA's Soul*Winston A. Van Horne(Editor), Carol Edler Baumann -Global Convulsions : Race, Ethnicity, and Nationalism at the End of the Twentieth Century / Paperback / Published 1997

*Maurizio Viroli - For Love of Country : An Essay on Patriotism and Nationalism   / Paperback / Published 1997

*Vamik D. Volkan - Blood Lines : From Ethnic Pride to Ethnic Terrorism / Hardcover / Published 1997

von Oppen, Karoline. The Role of the Writer and the Press in the Unification of Germany, 1989-1990*Barbara Ward - Five Ideas That Change the World / Paperback / Published 1959

Wachtel, Andrew Baruch, Making a Nation, Breaking a Nation: Literature and Cultural Politics in Yugoslavia. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998.

Weinstein, Brian. The Civic Tongue. New York: Longman, 1983.

Weitz, Eric D. A Century of Genocide: Utopias of Race and Nation. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003.

Williams, Alan:  Film and Nationalism. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2002.

Wimmer, Andreas. Nationalist Exclusion and Ethnic Conflict: Shadows of Modernity. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Winichakul, Thonchai. Siam Mapped: A History of the Geo-Body of a Nation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1994.

Winock, Michel. Nationalism, Anti-Semitism, and Fascism in France. Translated by Jane Marie Todd. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1998.

Wortman, Richard S. Scenarios of Power: Myth and Ceremony in the Russian Monarchy. 2 vols. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999.

Ziblatt, Daniel. Structuring the State: The Formation of Italy and Germany and the Puzzle of Federalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006.

Zimmer, Oliver. Nationalism in Europe, 1890-1940 (Studies in European History) A Contested Nation: History, Memory and Nationalism in Switzerland, 1761-1891,Oliver Zimmer examines the ways in which the Swiss defined their national identity in the nineteenth century, in the face of a changing domestic and international background. Zimmer explores why the nation became the focus of public concern at particular historical junctures, how different social actors created and re-created Swiss nationhood, and why the Swiss embraced some definitions rather than others. Beginning in the 1760s, which witnessed the genesis of an early national movement, the book ends in the 1890s when Switzerland developed into a modern nation.



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