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Life's good comes not from others' gift, nor ill
Man's pains and pains' relief are from within.
Thus have we seen in visions of the wise !."
Tamil Poem in Purananuru, circa 500 B.C 

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TAMIL NATION LIBRARY: International Relations

"Just because you don't take an interest in politics
doesn't mean politics won't take an interest in you."

- Pericles, 430 BC

[see also International Relations
& International Frame of the Struggle for Tamil Eelam]

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Sumanta Banerjee - India's Simmering Revolution:The Naxalite Uprising. Zed Books, 1984

Daniel L. Byman, Peter Chalk, Bruce Hoffman, William Rosenau, David Brannan - Trends in Outside Support for Insurgent Movements - A Rand Corporation Publication, 2001

"... Diasporas have provided important support (for insurgent movements) during the past decade. Unlike states, diasporas provide more reliable funding and tend to refrain from seeking control of insurgent movements.... One of the most important forms of support a state can provide, ironically, is passive acceptance of diaspora activism. Immigrant communities and other interested outsiders often openly raise money, distribute propaganda, and aid an insurgency's cause with little interference from a host government, even when that host government generally opposes the insurgency. Shutting down diaspora support requires action by their government hosts... Understanding insurgent struggles since the end of the Cold War requires recognizing the changing agendas and limited means of state sponsors, the possible increase in the role of diasporas, and the rise of other nonstate backers....it requires understanding the importance of passive support - that besides tracking the flow of arms, money, volunteers, and other active forms of support, analysts must also look at what is not done in host countries that allows diasporas and other interested outsiders to operate freely..."

 * Noam Chomsky Failed States *J N Dixit - Assignment Colombo, Konarak Publishers, 1998

"...The LTTE's emergence as the most dominant and effective politico-military force representing Tamil interests was due to the following factors:  First, the character and personality of its leader V Prabhakaran who is disciplined, austere and passionately committed to the cause of Sri Lankan Tamils's liberation. Whatever he may be criticised for, it cannot be denied that the man has an inner fire and dedication and he is endowed with natural military abilities, both strategic and tactical. He has also proved that he is a keen observer of the nature of competitive and critical politics. He has proved his abilities in judging political events and his adroitness in responding to them..." [see also Dixit on India's Role in the Struggle for Tamil Eelam]

*Harold George, Sir, Nicolson - Diplomacy / Paperback / Published 1988

*Micheline R. Ishay, Craig J. Calhoun - Internationalism and Its Betrayal (Contradictions of Modernity, Vol 2)  / Paperback / Published 1995

*Henry A. Kissinger - Diplomacy   / Paperback / Published 1995

"...Kissinger's approach is historical, beginning with Cardinal Richelieu's policy in the Thirty Years' War, but his arguments are conceptual dissections of the principles on which the statesman of the moment operated. Whether discussing the Cardinal's raison d'{�}etat, Metternich's (and then Palmerston's) balance-of-power, Bismarck's naked Realpolitik, Wilson's rejection of the above in favor of a vaporous collective security, the aggressive ideologies of expansion that issued from World War I, or the more solid collective security embodied in NATO, Kissinger is implicitly showing America's present (and near future) administrators the analogous choices on their post-Cold War menu. Referring often to John Quincy Adams' famed 1821 admonition that "America should not go abroad in search of monsters to destroy," Kissinger cautions against the exceptional American temptation, regardless of party, to compel a democratic transformation of the world. He would prefer the revival of a balance-of-power outlook, which America has never practiced, but through which, among other outcomes, Russia becomes reconciled to its reduced, though still vast, territory..." (Editorial Review from Booklist)

Arnold Krammer - The Forgotten Friendship: Israel and the Soviet Bloc, 1947-53

William J.Lederer and Eugene Burdick - The Ugly American

Mark Lloyd - Special Forces: The Changing Face of Warfare

*Helen V. Milner - Interests, Institutions, and Information : Domestic Politics and International Relations  / Hardcover / Published 1997

* R.W.Mansbach and J.A.Vasquez - In Search of Theory: A New Paradigm for Global Politics , New York, Columbia University Press [book note]

Roger C. Molander, Andrew S. Riddile, Peter A. Wilson - Strategic Information Warfare: A New Face of War Published by Rand

Pannikar, K.M.- Principles and Practice of Diplomacy, Asia Publishing House, Bombay, 1956

* Governmental Illegitimacy in International LawBook Description

When is a de facto authority not entitled to be considered a 'government' for the purposes of International Law? International reaction to the 1991-4 Haitian crisis is only the most prominent in a series of events that suggest a norm of governmental illegitimacy is emerging to challenge more traditional notions of state sovereignty. This challenge has dramatic implications for two fundamental legal strictures: that against the use or threat of force against a state's political independence, and that against interference in matters 'essentially' within a state's domestic jurisdiction. Yet although human rights advocates have begun to speak of state sovereignty as an 'anachronism', with some expansively proclaiming the emergence of an international 'right to democratic governance,' international law literature lacks systematic treatment of governmental illegitimacy.

This work seeks to specify the international law of collective non-recognition of governments, so as to enable legal evaluation of cases in which competing factions assert governmental authority. It subjects the recognition controversies of the United Nations era to a systematic examination, informed by theoretical and comparative perspectives on governmental legitimacy.

The inquiry establishes that the category of 'illegitimate government' now occupies a place in international law, with significant consequences for the legality of intervention in certain instances. The principle of popular sovereignty, hitherto vague and ambiguous, has acquired sufficient determinacy to serve, in some circumstances, as a basis for denial of legal recognition to putative governments.

This development does not imply, however, the emergence in international law of a meaningful norm of 'democratic governance,' nor would such a norm serve the purposes of the scheme of sovereign equality of states embodied in the United Nations Charter.

Arundhati Roy....

* Field Notes on Democracy: Listening to Grasshoppers, 2009
*An Ordinary Person's Guide to Empire., 2004 "..The project of corporate globalization has cracked the code of democracy. Free elections, a free press and an independent judiciary mean little when the free market has reduced them to commodities on sale to the highest bidder..."
*The Checkbook and the Cruise Missile: Conversations with Arundhati Roy, 2004
*Come September (audio), 2004
*Instant-Mix Imperial Democracy : Two Talks with Howard Zinn [abridged], Audio CD, 2004
*For Reasons of State
Noam Chomsky, Arundhati Roy, 2003
*War Talk 2003
*Power Politics,2002
*Algebra of Infinite Justice (Revised and Updated) 2002
*The Greater Common Good 1999
*The Cost of Living, 1999
*The God of Small Things, 1998, 1997 Booker Prize Winner

Zalmay Khalilzad and Ian O. Lesser (Ed) - Sources of Conflict in the 21st Century: Regional Futures and U.S. Strategy Published by Rand 



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