Tamils - a Trans State Nation..

"To us all towns are one, all men our kin.
Life's good comes not from others' gift, nor ill
Man's pains and pains' relief are from within.
Thus have we seen in visions of the wise !."
Tamil Poem in Purananuru, circa 500 B.C 

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Tamil Diaspora - a Trans State Nation

"..Groups of people are solidifying their identities outside of the state, and the twenty-first century will see new configurations of nongovernmental, intergovernmental, and UN structures.." (Elise Boulding - Building Peace in the Middle East, 1994 quoted by Kevin Kusawa in Finding the Kurds a Way: Kurdistan and the discourse of the nation-state).  [see also Tamil Diaspora - a Trans State Nation]

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Rajeswary Ampalavanar - The Indian Minority and Political Change in Malaya 1945-1957, Oxford University Press, 1981

Durai Raja Singam, S - A Hundred Years of Ceylonese in Malaysia and Singapore 1867-1967. Kuala Lumpur, 1968. 433p. 

Evers, Hans-Dieter; Pavadarayan, Jayarani & Schrader, Heiko. - The Chettiar Moneylenders in Singapore - in Evers, H.-D. & Schrader, H., eds. The Moral Economy of Trade: Ethnicity and Developing markets. London: Routledge, 1994. Pp. 198-207.

*Fuller, Elizabeth - Malaysian Hindus, Paperback,   Published 1997

Hatley, R. -  The Overseas Indian in Southeast Asia: Burma, Malaysia, and Singapore - in  Tilman, R. O., ed. Man, state, and society in contemporary Southeast Asia. New York: Praeger, 1969. Pp. 450-466.

*Oddvar Hollup - Bonded Labour : Caste and Cultural Identity Among Tamil Plantation Workers in Sri Lanka ,  Hardcover / Date Published: January 1994

*McDowell, Christopher  - A Tamil Asylum Diaspora : Sri Lankan Migration, Settlement and Politics in Switzerland (Refugee and Forced Migration Studies, Vol 1)

*Ivind Fuglerud, Oivind Fuglerud - Life on the Outside : The Tamil Diaspora and Long-Distance Nationalism (Anthropology, Culture and Society)  / Paperback / Published: June 1999(**alternative link to Amazon.co.uk)

"....Exile is not primarily a geographical location, it is a state of mind through which one becomes what one has left behind. In the Tamil case many actually become what they have fled from. Between the extremes of the warrior and the victim the refugee must carry out his 'bricolage', assemble the pieces and carry on. For many this life project takes the form of internalised martyrdom, the fight for Eelam being replaced by a longing for Eelam which grows into a constant part of the personality and becomes a counterweight, the counterweight, to the vicissitudes of exile. What is characteristic of the Tamil exile situation, therefore, is a blurring of 'here' and 'there'; the dismembering of social networks, the re-membering of an imaginary homeland, the attachment of an imagined community to an imagined place. It is that from which they are excluded which makes them not only 'refugees' but ' Tamil refugees'...The grand narrative of revolutionary nationalism is adapted, by refugees who accept it, to provide a genesis of the diaspora....'When the atrocities of the Sinhalese terrorists increased, to protect our lives we fled...' This explanation goes beyond scientific history and represents a 'mythico-history'. Not because it is untrue but because the Tamils as a people are here heroised and placed within a more encompassing moral ordering of the world  where relationships and processes are reinterpreted within a dichotomy of good and evil...."

*Yvonne Fries, Thomas Bibin - The Undesirables : The Expatriation of the Tamil People of Recent Indian Origin from the Plantations in Sri Lanka to India , Hardcover, Published 1985

Rajah, Gajaluckshumi  - The Ceylon Tamils of Singapore. 101p. Academic exercise - Dept. of Social Studies, University of Malaya, 1958. 

*Rajakrishnan Ramasamy - Sojourners to citizens : Sri Lankan Tamils in Malaysia, 1885-1965

*Rajakrishnan Ramasamy - Caste consciousness among Indian Tamils in Malaysia

*Sahadevan, P - India and overseas Indians : the case of Sri Lanka

Sandhu, Kernial S - Indians in Malaya: some aspects of their immigration and settlement 1786-1957. London: Cambridge University Press, 1969. 346p.

Sandhu, Kernial S. Some aspects of Indian settlement in Singapore, 1819-1969. Journal of Southeast Asian History, 10(2):193-201, 1969. 

Sandhu, Kernial S. & Mani A., eds. Indian communities in Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 1993. 983p. Has a substantial section on Singapore and Malaysia.

V. Siva Subramaniam  - The Changing Character of the Identity Issue for Tamils - A Socio-Cultural History , 2005

Tan, Tai Yong & Major, Andrew J. - India and Indians in the making of Singapore. - in  Yong, M. C. & Rao, V. B., eds. Singapore-India relations: a primer. Singapore: Singapore University Press, 1995. Pp. 1-20.

Tatla, Darshan Singh - The Sikh Diaspora: the Search for Statehood, UCL Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 1999






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