"..Groups of people are solidifying
their identities outside of the state, and the twenty-first century
will see new configurations of nongovernmental, intergovernmental,
and UN structures.."
(Elise Boulding - Building Peace in the Middle East, 1994
quoted by Kevin Kusawa in
Finding the Kurds a Way: Kurdistan and the discourse of the
nation-state). [see also
Diaspora - a Trans State Nation]
* indicates link to
** indicates link to
Rajeswary Ampalavanar -
The Indian Minority and
Political Change in Malaya 1945-1957, Oxford University Press,
Durai Raja Singam, S - A Hundred Years of Ceylonese in Malaysia
and Singapore 1867-1967. Kuala Lumpur, 1968. 433p.
Evers, Hans-Dieter; Pavadarayan, Jayarani & Schrader, Heiko. -
The Chettiar Moneylenders in Singapore - in Evers, H.-D. & Schrader,
H., eds. The Moral Economy of Trade: Ethnicity and Developing
markets. London: Routledge, 1994. Pp. 198-207.
Malaysian Hindus, Paperback, Published 1997
Hatley, R. - The Overseas Indian in Southeast Asia: Burma,
Malaysia, and Singapore - in Tilman, R. O., ed. Man, state,
and society in contemporary Southeast Asia. New York: Praeger, 1969.
Bonded Labour : Caste and Cultural Identity Among Tamil Plantation
Workers in Sri Lanka
, Hardcover /
Date Published: January 1994
A Tamil Asylum Diaspora : Sri Lankan Migration, Settlement and
Politics in Switzerland (Refugee and Forced Migration Studies, Vol
Life on the Outside : The Tamil Diaspora and Long-Distance
Nationalism (Anthropology, Culture and Society)
/ Paperback /
link to Amazon.co.uk)
"....Exile is not primarily a geographical location,
it is a state of mind through which one becomes what one has
left behind. In the Tamil case many actually become what they
have fled from. Between the extremes of the warrior and the
victim the refugee must carry out his 'bricolage', assemble the
pieces and carry on. For many this life project takes the form
of internalised martyrdom, the fight for Eelam being replaced by
a longing for Eelam which grows into a constant part of the
personality and becomes a counterweight, the
counterweight, to the vicissitudes of exile. What is
characteristic of the Tamil exile situation, therefore, is a
blurring of 'here' and 'there'; the dismembering of social
networks, the re-membering of an imaginary homeland, the
attachment of an imagined community to an imagined place. It is
that from which they are excluded which makes them not only
'refugees' but ' Tamil
refugees'...The grand narrative of revolutionary nationalism is
adapted, by refugees who accept it, to provide a genesis of the
atrocities of the Sinhalese terrorists increased, to protect
our lives we fled...' This explanation goes beyond scientific
history and represents a 'mythico-history'.
because it is untrue
but because the Tamils as a people are here heroised and placed
within a more encompassing moral ordering of the world
where relationships and processes are reinterpreted within a
dichotomy of good and evil...."
Thomas Bibin -
The Undesirables : The Expatriation of the Tamil People of Recent
Indian Origin from the Plantations in Sri Lanka to India ,
Hardcover, Published 1985
Rajah, Gajaluckshumi - The Ceylon Tamils of Singapore.
101p. Academic exercise - Dept. of Social Studies, University of
Sojourners to citizens : Sri Lankan Tamils in Malaysia, 1885-1965
Caste consciousness among Indian Tamils in Malaysia
*Sahadevan, P -
India and overseas Indians : the case of Sri Lanka
Sandhu, Kernial S - Indians in Malaya: some aspects of their
immigration and settlement 1786-1957. London: Cambridge University
Press, 1969. 346p.
Sandhu, Kernial S. Some aspects of Indian settlement in
Singapore, 1819-1969. Journal of Southeast Asian History,
Sandhu, Kernial S. & Mani A., eds. Indian communities in
Southeast Asia. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies,
1993. 983p. Has a substantial section on Singapore and Malaysia.
V. Siva Subramaniam -
The Changing Character of the Identity Issue for Tamils - A
Socio-Cultural History , 2005
Tan, Tai Yong & Major, Andrew J. - India and Indians in the
making of Singapore. - in Yong, M. C. & Rao, V. B., eds.
Singapore-India relations: a primer. Singapore: Singapore University
Press, 1995. Pp. 1-20.
Tatla, Darshan Singh -
The Sikh Diaspora: the
Search for Statehood, UCL Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 1999