English Translation & Commentary (in italics)
PART I. VIRTUE
1.1.1 The Praise
A, as its first of
letters, every speech maintains;
The "Primal Deity"
is first through all the world's domains.
As the letter A is the
first of all letters, so the eternal God is first in the world.
No fruit have men of
all their studied lore,
Save they the
'Purely Wise One's' feet adore.
What Profit have
those derived from learning, who worship not the good feet of Him
who is possessed of pure knowledge ?
His feet, 'Who o'er
the full-blown flower hath past,' who gain
In bliss long time
shall dwell above this earthly plain.
They who are
united to the glorious feet of Him who passes swiftly over the
flower of the mind, shall flourish long above all worlds.
His foot, 'Whom want
affects not, irks not grief,' who gain
Shall not, through
every time, of any woes complain.
To those who meditate
the feet of Him who is void of desire or aversion, evil shall never
The men, who on the
'King's' true praised delight to dwell,
Affects not them the
fruit of deeds done ill or well.
deeds that spring from darkness shall not adhere to those who
delight in the true praise of God.
Long live they blest,
who 've stood in path from falsehood freed;
His, 'Who quenched
lusts that from the sense-gates five proceed'.
Those shall long
proposer who abide in the faultless way of Him who has destroyed the
five desires of the senses.
Unless His foot, 'to Whom
none can compare,' men gain, 'Tis hard for mind to find
relief from anxious pain.
Anxiety of mind cannot
be removed, except from those who areunited to the feet of
Him who is incomparable.
Unless His feet 'the
Sea of Good, the Fair and Bountiful,' men gain,
'Tis hard the
further bank of being's changeful sea to attain.
None can swim the
sea of vice, but those who are united to the feet of that gracious
Being who is a sea of virtue.
Before His foot, 'the
Eight-fold Excellence,' with unbent head,
Who stands, like palsied
sense, is to all living functions dead.
The head that worships
not the feet of Him who is possessed of eight attributes, is
as useless as a sense without the power of sensation.
They swim the sea of
births, the 'Monarch's' foot who gain;
None others reach the
shore of being's mighty main.
None can swim the great
sea of births but those who are united to the feet of God.
The Excellence of Rain
The world its course
maintains through life that rain unfailing gives;
Thus rain is known
the true ambrosial food of all that lives.
continuance of rain the world is preserved in existence; it is
therefore worthy to be called ambrosia.
The rain makes pleasant
food for eaters rise;
As food itself,
thirst-quenching draught supplies. Rain
produces good food, and is itself food.
If clouds, that
promised rain, deceive, and in the sky remain,
torment, stalks o'er earth's vast ocean-girdled plain.
If the cloud,
withholding rain, deceive (our hopes) hunger will long distress the
sea-girt spacious world.
If clouds their
wealth of waters fail on earth to pour,
The ploughers plough
with oxen's sturdy team no more.
If the abundance of
wealth imparting rain diminish, the labour of the plough must cease.
'Tis rain works all:
it ruin spreads, then timely aid supplies;
As, in the happy
days before, it bids the ruined rise.
Rain by its absence
ruins men; and by its existence restores them to fortune.
If from the clouds
no drops of rain are shed. 'Tis rare to see green herb lift up its
If no drop falls from
the clouds, not even the green blade of grass will be seen.
If clouds restrain
their gifts and grant no rain,
The treasures fail
in ocean's wide domain.
Even the wealth
of the wide sea will be diminished, if the cloud that has drawn (its
waters) up gives them not back again (in rain).
If heaven grow dry,
with feast and offering never more,
Will men on earth
the heavenly ones adore.
If the heaven dry
up, neither yearly festivals, nor daily worship will be ofered in
this world, to the celestials.
If heaven its watery
treasures ceases to dispense,
Through the wide
world cease gifts, and deeds of 'penitence'.
If rain fall not,
penance and alms-deeds will not dwell within this spacious world.
When water fails,
functions of nature cease, you say;
Thus when rain
fails, no men can walk in 'duty's ordered way'.
If it be said
that the duties of life cannot be discharged by any person without
water, so without rain there cannot be the flowing of water.
1.1.3. The Greatness of
The settled rule of
every code requires, as highest good,
Their greatness who,
renouncing all, true to their rule have stood.
The end and aim
of all treatise is to extol beyond all other excellence, the
greatness of those who, while abiding in the rule of conduct
peculiar to their state, have abandoned all desire.
As counting those that
from the earth have passed away,
'Tis vain attempt the
might of holy men to say.
To describe the measure
of the greatness of those who have forsaken the two-fold
desires, is like counting the dead.
earth transcends, who, way of both worlds weighed,
In this world take
their stand, in virtue's robe arrayed.
The greatness of
those who have discovered the properties of both states of being,
and renounced the world, shines forth on earth (beyond all others).
He, who with
firmness, curb the five restrains,
Is seed for soil of
yonder happy plains.
He who guides his five
senses by the hook of wisdom will be a seed in the world of heaven.
Their might who have
destroyed 'the five', shall soothly tell
Indra, the lord of
those in heaven's wide realms that dwell.
Indra, the king
of the inhabitants of the spacious heaven, is himself, a sufficient
proof of the strength of him who has subdued his five senses.
Things hard in the
doing will great men do;
Things hard in the
doing the mean eschew.
The great will do those
things which is d ifficult to be done; but the mean cannot do them.
Taste, light, touch,
sound, and smell: who knows the way
Of all the five,-
the world submissive owns his sway.
The world is
within the knowledge of him who knows the properties of taste,
sight, touch, hearing and smell.
The might of men whose
word is never vain,
The 'secret word'
shall to the earth proclaim.
The hidden words of the
men whose words are full of effect, will shew their greatness to the
The wrath 'tis hard
e'en for an instant to endure,
Of those who
virtue's hill have scaled, and stand secure.
The anger of
those who have ascended the mountain of goodness, though it continue
but for a moment, cannot be resisted.
Towards all that
breathe, with seemly graciousness adorned they live;
And thus to virtue's
sons the name of 'Anthanar' men give.
The virtuous are
truly called Anthanar; because in their conduct towards all
creatures they are clothed in kindness.
1.1.4. Assertion of the
Strength of Virtue
distinction, yields prosperity; what gain
Greater than virtue
can a living man obtain?
Virtue will confer
heaven and wealth; what greater source of happiness can man possess
No greater gain than
virtue aught can cause;
No greater loss than
life oblivious of her laws.
There can be no
greater source of good than (the practice of) virtue; there can be
no greater source of evil than the forgetfulness of it.
To finish virtue's
work with ceaseless effort strive,
What way thou may'st,
where'er thou see'st the work may thrive.
As much as
possible, in every way, incessantly practise virtue.
Spotless be thou in
mind! This only merits virtue's name;
All else, mere pomp
of idle sound, no real worth can claim.
Let him who does
virtuous deeds be of spotless mind; to that extent is virtue; all
else is vain show.
'Tis virtue when, his
footsteps sliding not through envy, wrath, Lust, evil
speech-these four, man onwards moves in ordered path.
That conduct is virtue
which is free from these four things, viz, malice,desire,
anger and bitter speech.
Do deeds of virtue
now. Say not, 'To-morrow we'll be wise';
Thus, when thou
diest, shalt thou find a help that never dies.
Defer not virtue
to another day; receive her now; and at the dying hour she will be
your undying friend.
Needs not in words
to dwell on virtue's fruits: compare
The man in litter
borne with them that toiling bear!
The fruit of
virtue need not be described in books; it may be inferred from
seeing the bearer of a palanquin and the rider therein.
If no day passing
idly, good to do each day you toil,
A stone it will be
to block the way of future days of moil.
If one allows no
day to pass without some good being done, his conduct will be a
stone to block up the passage to other births.
What from virtue
floweth, yieldeth dear delight;
All else extern, is
void of glory's light.
pleasure which flows from domestic virtue is pleasure; all else is
not pleasure, and it is without praise.
'Virtue' sums the
things that should be done;
'Vice' sums the
things that man should shun.
That is virtue which
each ought to do, and that is vice which each should shun.
The men of household
virtue, firm in way of good, sustain The other orders three that
rule professed maintain.
He will be called
a (true) householder, who is a firm support to the virtuous of the
three orders in their good path.
To anchorites, to
indigent, to those who've passed away,
The man for
household virtue famed is needful held and stay.
He will be said to
flourish in domestic virtue who aids the forsaken, the poor, and the
The manes, God,
guests kindred, self, in due degree, These five to cherish well is
The chi ef (duty
of the householder) is to preserve the five-fold rule (of conduct)
towards the manes, the Gods, his guests, his relations and himself.
Who shares his meal
with other, while all guilt he shuns,
His virtuous line
unbroken though the ages runs.
shall never fail who, living in the domestic state, fears vice (in
the acquisition of property) and shares his food (with others).
If love and virtue
in the household reign,
This is of life the
perfect grace and gain.
If the married life
possess love and virtue, these will be both its duty and reward.
If man in active
household life a virtuous soul retain,
What fruit from
other modes of virtue can he gain?
What will he who lives
virtuously in the domestic state gain by going into the other,
(ascetic) state ?
In nature's way who
spends his calm domestic days,
'Mid all that strive
for virtue's crown hath foremost place.
Among all those
who labour (for future happiness) he is greatest who lives well in
the household state.
Others it sets upon
their way, itself from virtue ne'er declines;
Than stern ascetics'
pains such life domestic brighter shines.
who, not swerving from virtue, helps the ascetic in his way, endures
more than those who endure penance.
The life domestic
rightly bears true virtue's name;
That other too, if
blameless found, due praise may claim.
The marriage state is
truly called virtue. The other state is also good, if others do not
Who shares domestic
life, by household virtues graced, Shall, mid the Gods, in heaven
who dwell, be placed.
He who on earth
has lived in the conjugal state as he should live, will be placed
among the Gods who dwell in heaven.
1.2.2 The Goodness of
the Help to Domestic Life
As doth the house
beseem, she shows her wifely dignity;
As doth her
husband's wealth befit, she spends: help - meet is she.
She who has the
excellence of home virtues, and can expend within the means of her
husband, is a help in the domestic state.
excellence be wanting in the wife,
splendour lived, all worthless is the life.
If the wife be
devoid of domestic excellence, whatever (other) greatness be
possessed, the conjugal state, is nothing.
There is no lack
within the house, where wife in worth excels,
There is no luck
within the house, where wife dishonoured dwells.
If his wife be
eminent (in virtue), what does (that man) not possess ? If she be
without excellence, what does (he) possess ?
If woman might of
treasure doth the world contain?
What is more excellent
than a wife, if she possess the stability of chastity ?
No God adoring, low
she bends before her lord;
Then rising, serves:
the rain falls instant at her word!
If she, who does not
worship God, but who rising worships her husband, say, "let it rain,
" it will rain.
Who guards herself,
for husband's comfort cares, her household's fame, In perfect wise
with sleepless soul preserves, -give her a woman's name.
She is a wife who
unweariedly guards herself, takes care of her husband, and preserves
an unsullied fame.
Of what avail is
watch and ward?
Honour's woman's safest
What avails the guard
of a prison ? The chi ef guard of a woman is her chastity.
If wife be wholly
true to him who gained her as his bride,
Great glory gains
she in the world where gods bliss abide.
If women shew
reverence to their husbands, they will obtain great excellence in
the world where the gods flourish.
Who have not spouses
that in virtue's praise delight,
They lion-like can
never walk in scorner's sight.
The man whose
wife seeks not the praise (of chastity) cannot walk with lion-like
stately step, before those who revile them.
The house's 'blessing',
men pronounce the house-wife excellent;
The gain of blessed
children is its goodly ornament.
The excellence of
a wife is the good of her husband; and good children are the jewels
of that goodness.
1.2.3. The Obtaining of
Of all that men
acquire, we know not any greater gain,
Than that which by
the birth of learned children men obtain.
Among all the
benefits that may be acquired, we know no greater benefit than the
acquisition of intelligent children.
Who children gain, that
none reproach, of virtuous worth,
No evils touch them,
through the sev'n-fold maze of birth.
The evils of the
seven births shall not touch those who abtain children of a good
disposition, free from vice.
'Man's children are
his fortune,' say the wise;
From each one's
deeds his varied fortunes rise.
Men will call
their sons their wealth, because it flows to them through the deeds
which they (sons) perform on their behalf.
Than God's ambrosia
sweeter far the food before men laid,
In which the little
hands of children of their own have play'd.
The rice in which
the little hand of their children has dabbled will be far sweeter
(to the parent) than ambrosia.
To patent sweet the
touch of children dear;
Their voice is
sweetest music to his ear.
The touch of children
gives pleasure to the body, and the hearing of their words, pleasure
to the ear.
'The pipe is sweet,'
'the lute is sweet,' by them't will be averred,
Who music of their
infants' lisping lips have never heard.
"The pipe is sweet, the
lute is sweet," say those who have not heard the prattle of their
Sire greatest boon
on son confers, who makes him meet,
In councils of the
wise to fill the highest seat.
The benefit which
a father should confer on his son is to give him precedence in the
assembly of the learned.
Their children's wisdom
greater than their own confessed,
Through the wide
world is sweet to every human breast.
children should possess knowledge is more pleasing to all men of
this great earth than to themselves.
When mother hears
him named 'fulfill'd of wisdom's lore,'
Far greater joy she
feels, than when her son she bore.
The mother who hears
her son called "a wise man" will rejoice more than she did at his
To sire, what best
requital can by grateful child be done?
To make men say,
'What merit gained the father such a son?'
(So to act) that
it may be said "by what great penance did his father beget him," is
the benefit which a son should render to his father.
1.2.4. The Possession
And is there bar
that can even love restrain?
The tiny tear shall
make the lover's secret plain.
Is there any
fastening that can shut in love ? Tears of the afectionate will
publish the love that is within.
The loveless to
themselves belong alone;
The loving men are
others' to the very bone.
Those who are
destitute of love appropriate all they have to themselves; but those
who possess love consider even their bones to belong to others.
Of precious soul
with body's flesh and bone,
The union yields one
fruit, the life of love alone.
They say that the
union of soul and body in man is the fruit of the union of love and
virtue (in a former birth).
From love fond
yearning springs for union sweet of minds;
And that the bond of
rare excelling friendship binds.
Love begets desire: and
that (desire) begets the immeasureable excellence of friendship.
Sweetness on earth
and rarest bliss above,
These are the fruits of
tranquil life of love.
They say that the
felicity which those who, after enjoying the pleasure (of the
conjugal state) in this world, obtain in heaven is the result of
their domestic state imbued with love.
The unwise deem love
virtue only can sustain,
It also helps the
man who evil would restrain.
The ignorant say that
love is an ally to virtue only, but it is also a help to get out of
As sun's fierce ray
dries up the boneless things,
So loveless beings
virtue's power to nothing brings.
Virtue will burn
up the soul which is without love, even as the sun burns up the
creature which is without bone, i.e. worms.
The loveless soul,
the very joys of life may know,
When flowers, in
barren soil, on sapless trees, shall blow.
state of that man whose mind is without love is like the flourishing
of a withered tree upon the parched desert.
Though every outward
part complete, the body's fitly framed;
What good, when soul
within, of love devoid, lies halt and maimed?
Of what avail are
all the external members (of the body) to those who are destitute of
love, the internal member.
Bodies of loveless men
are bony framework clad with skin;
Then is the body
seat of life, when love resides within.
That body alone
which is inspired with love contains a living soul: if void of it,
(the body) is bone overlaid with skin.
1.2.5 Cherishing Guests
All household cares and
course of daily life have this in view.
Guests to receive
with courtesy, and kindly acts to do.
The whole design
of living in the domestic state and laying up (property) is (to be
able) to exercise the benevolence of hospitality.
Though food of
immortality should crown the board,
Feasting alone, the
guests without unfed, is thing abhorred.
It is not fit
that one should wish his guests to be outside (his house) even
though he were eating the food of immortality.
Each day he tends
the coming guest with kindly care; Painless, unfailing plenty shall
his household share.
The domestic life
of the man that daily entertains the guests who come to him shall
not be laid waste by poverty.
With smiling face he
entertains each virtuous guest,
gladsome mind shall in his dwelling rest.
joyous mind shall dwell in the house of that man who, with cheerful
countenance, entertains the good as guests.
Who first regales
his guest, and then himself supplies,
O'er all his fields,
unsown, shall plenteous harvests rise.
Is it necessary to sow
the field of the man who, having feasted his guests, eats what may
The guest arrived he
tends, the coming guest expects to see;
To those in heavenly
homes that dwell a welcome guest is he.
He who, having
entertained the guests that have come, looks out for others who may
yet come, will be a welcome guest to the inhabitants of heaven.
To reckon up the fruit of
kindly deeds were all in vain; Their worth is as the worth
of guests you entertain.
The advantages of benevolence cannot be measured; the
measure (of the virtue) of the guests (entertained) is the
With pain they guard
their stores, yet 'All forlorn are we,' they'll cry,
Who cherish not
their guests, nor kindly help supply.
Those who have
taken no part in the benevolence of hospitality shall (at length
lament) saying, "we have laboured and laid up wealth and are now
To turn from guests
is penury, though worldly goods abound;
folly, only with the senseless found.
which excercises no hospitality is poverty in the midst of wealth.
It is the property of the stupid.
The flower of
'Anicha' withers away, If you do but its fragrance inhale;
If the face of the
host cold welcome convey, The guest's heart within him will fail.
As the Anicham flower
fades in smelling, so fades the guest when the face is turned away.
Utterance of Pleasant Words
Pleasant words are
words with all pervading love that burn;
Words from his
guileless mouth who can the very truth discern.
Sweet words are
those which imbued with love and free from deceit flow from the
mouth of the virtuous.
A pleasant word with
beaming smile's preferred,
Even to gifts with
liberal heart conferred.
Sweet speech, with a
cheerful countenance is better than a gift made with a joyous mind.
beaming smile, and kindly light of loving eye,
And heart sincere,
to utter pleasant words is charity.
flowing from the heart (uttered) with a cheerful countenance and a
sweet look, is true virtue.
The men of pleasant
speech that gladness breathe around,
shall never sorrow's prey be found.
poverty shall not come upon those who use towards all,
pleasure-increasing sweetness of speech.
pleasant speech to man on earth,
Is choice adornment;
all besides is nothing worth.
Humility and sweetness
of speech are the ornaments of man; all others are not (ornaments).
Who seeks out good,
words from his lips of sweetness flow;
In him the power of
vice declines, and virtues grow.
If a man, while
seeking to speak usefully, speaks also sweetly, his sins will
diminish and his virtue increase.
The words of
sterling sense, to rule of right that strict adhere,
To virtuous action
prompting, blessings yield in every sphere.
which, while imparting benefits ceases not to please, will yield
righteousness (for this world) and merit (for the next world).
Sweet kindly words,
from meanness free, delight of heart,
In world to come and
in this world impart.
Sweet speech, free from
harm to others, will give pleasure both in this world and in the
Who sees the
pleasure kindly speech affords,
Why makes he use of
harsh, repellant words?
Why does he use harsh
words, who sees the pleasure which sweet speech yields ?
When pleasant words
are easy, bitter words to use,
Is, leaving sweet
ripe fruit, the sour unripe to choose.
To say disagreeable
things when agreeable are at hand is like eating unripe fruit when
there is ripe.
1.2.7 The Knowledge of
Benefits Conferred: Gratitude
Assistance given by
those who ne'er received our aid,
Is debt by gift of
heaven and earth but poorly paid.
(The gift of)
heaven and earth is not an equivalent for a benefit which is
conferred where none had been received.
A timely benefit,
-though thing of little worth,
The gift itself, -in
excellence transcends the earth.
conferred in the time of need, though it be small (in itself), is
(in value) much larger than the world.
Kindness shown by
those who weigh not what the return may be:
When you ponder
right its merit, 'Tis vaster than the sea.
If we weigh the
excellence of a benefit which is conferred without weighing the
return, it is larger than the sea.
Each benefit to
those of actions' fruit who rightly deem,
Though small as
millet-seed, as palm-tree vast will seem.
benefit conferred be as small as a millet seed, those who know its
advantage will consider it as large as a palm yra fruit.
The kindly aid's
extent is of its worth no measure true;
Its worth is as the
worth of him to whom the act you do.
itself is not the measure of the benefit; the worth of those who
have received it is its measure.
Kindness of men of
stainless soul remember evermore!
Forsake thou never
friends who were thy stay in sorrow sore!
Forsake not the
friendship of those who have been your staff in adversity. Forget
not be benevolence of the blameless.
Through all seven
worlds, in seven-fold birth, Remains in mem'ry of the wise.
Friendship of those
who wiped on earth, The tears of sorrow from their eyes.
(The wise) will
remember throughout their seven-fold births the love of those who
have wiped away their afliction.
'Tis never good to let
the thought of good things done thee pass away;
Of things not good,
'tis good to rid thy memory that very day.
It is not good to
forget a benefit; it is good to forget an injury even in the very
moment (in which it is inflicted).
is deadliest injury,
By thought of one
kind act in days gone by.
inflict an injury great as murder, it will perish before the thought
of one benefit (formerly) conferred.
Who every good have
killed, may yet destruction flee;
Who 'benefit' has
killed, that man shall ne'er 'scape free!
He who has killed every
virtue may yet escape; there is no escape for him who has killed a
If justice, failing
not, its quality maintain,
Giving to each his
due, -'tis man's one highest gain.
That equity which
consists in acting with equal regard to each of (the three)
divisions of men [enemies, strangers and friends] is a pre-eminent
The just man's wealth
unwasting shall endure,
And to his race a
lasting joy ensure.
The wealth of the man
of rectitude will not perish, but will bring happiness also to his
Though only good it
seem to give, yet gain
By wrong acquired,
not e'en one day retain!
Forsake in the
very moment (of acquisition) that gain which, though it should bring
advantage, is without equity.
Who just or unjust
lived shall soon appear:
By each one's
offspring shall the truth be clear.
The worthy and unworthy
may be known by the existence or otherwise of good offsprings.
The gain and loss in
life are not mere accident;
Just mind inflexible
is sages' ornament.
Loss and gain
come not without cause; it is the ornament of the wise to preserve
evenness of mind (under both).
If, right deserting,
heart to evil turn,
Let man impending
ruin's sign discern!
Let him whose
mind departing from equity commits sin well consider thus within
himself, "I shall perish."
The man who justly
lives, tenacious of the right, In low estate is never low to wise
The great will not
regard as poverty the low estate of that man who dwells in the
virtue of equity.
To stand, like
balance-rod that level hangs and rightly weighs,
With calm unbiassed
equity of soul, is sages' praise.
To incline to neither
side, but to rest impartial as the even-fixed scale is the ornament
of the wise.
word is righteousness,
If men inflexibility
of soul possess.
Freedom from obliquity
of speech is rectitude, if there be (corresponding) freedom from
bias of mind.
As thriving trader is
the trader known,
Who guards another's
interests as his own.
The true merchandize of
merchants is to guard and do by the things of others as they do by
1.2.9 The Possession of
Control of self does
man conduct to bliss th' immortals share;
Indulgence leads to
deepest night, and leaves him there.
place (a man) among the Gods; the want of it will drive (him) into
the thickest darkness (of hell).
Guard thou as wealth
the power of self-control;
Than this no greater
gain to living soul!
Let self-control be
guarded as a treasure; there is no greater source of good for man
If versed in
wisdom's lore by virtue's law you self restrain.
known will yield you glory's gain.
self-control is knowledge, if a man should control himself, in the
prescribed course, such self-control will bring him distinction
among the wise.
In his station, all
unswerving, if man self subdue,
Greater he than
mountain proudly rising to the view.
More lofty than a
mountain will be the greatness of that man who without swerving from
his domestic state, controls himself.
To all humility is
goodly grace; but chief to them
blessed, -'tis fortune's diadem.
Humility is good in
all; but especially in the rich it is (the excellence of) higher
Like tortoise, who the
In one, through seven
world bliss obtains.
throughout a single birth, like a tortoise keep in his five senses,
the fruit of it will prove a safe-guard to him throughout the
Whate'er they fail to
guard, o'er lips men guard should keep; If not, through
fault of tongue, they bitter tears shall weep.
Whatever besides you leave unguarded, guard your tongue;
otherwise errors of speech and the consequent misery will
Though some small gain
of good it seem to bring,
The evil word is
parent still of evil thing.
If a man's speech be
productive of a single evil, all the good by him will be turned into
In flesh by fire
inflamed, nature may thoroughly heal the sore;
In soul by tongue
inflamed, the ulcer healeth never more.
The wound which
has been burnt in by fire may heal, but a wound burnt in by the
tongue will never heal.
restraint, and guards his soul from wrath,
Virtue, a timely
aid, attends his path.
for an opportunity, will come into the path of that man who,
possessed of learning and self-control, guards himself against
Possession of Decorum
especial excellence; with greater care
'Decorum' should men
guard than life, which all men share.
Propriety of conduct
leads to eminence, it should therefore be preserved more carefully
watching, learning, 'decorum' still we find;
Man's only aid;
toiling, guard thou this with watchful mind.
Let propriety of
conduct be laboriously preserved and guarded; though one know and
practise and excel in many virtues, that will be an eminent aid.
nobility on earth;
is ignoble birth.
Propriety of conduct is
true greatness of birth, and impropriety will sink into a mean
Though he forget,
the Brahman may regain his Vedic lore;
Failing in 'decorum
due,' birthright's gone for evermore.
A Brahman though
he should forget the Vedas may recover it by reading; but, if he
fail in propriety of conduct even his high birth will be destroyed.
The envious soul in
life no rich increase of blessing gains,
So man of 'due
decorum' void no dignity obtains.
Just as the
envious man will be without wealth, so will the man of destitute of
propriety of conduct be without greatness.
The strong of soul
no jot abate of 'strict decorum's' laws,
Knowing that 'due
decorum's' breach foulest disgrace will cause.
Those firm in
mind will not slacken in their observance of the proprieties of
life, knowing, as they do, the misery that flows from the
transgression from them.
'Tis source of
dignity when 'true decorum' is preserved;
'decorum's' rules endure e'en censures undeserved.
From propriety of
conduct men obtain greatness; from impropriety comes insuferable
observed a seed of good will be;
will sorrow yield eternally.
Propriety of conduct is
the seed of virtue; impropriety will ever cause sorrow.
It cannot be that
they who 'strict decorum's' law fulfil,
E'en in forgetful
mood, should utter words of ill.
Those who study
propriety of conduct will not speak evil, even forgetfully.
Who know not with
the world in harmony to dwell,
May many things have
learned, but nothing well.
Those who know
not how to act agreeably to the world, though they have learnt many
things, are still ignorant.
1.2.11 Not coveting
Who laws of virtue
and possession's rights have known,
Indulge no foolish
love of her by right another's own.
The folly of
desiring her who is the property of another will not be found in
those who know (the attributes of) virtue and (the rights of)
No fools, of all
that stand from virtue's pale shut out,
Like those who
longing lurk their neighbour's gate without.
Among all those
who stand on the outside of virtue, there are no greater fools than
those who stand outside their neighbour's door.
with the dead, e'en while they live, -how otherwise? With wife of
sure confiding friend who evil things devise.
are no better than dead men who desire evil towards the wife of
those who undoubtingly confide in them.
How great soe'er
they be, what gain have they of life,
Who, not a whit
reflecting, seek a neighbour's wife.
However great one
may be, what does it avail if, without at all considering his guilt,
he goes unto the wife of another ?
saying thus, invades the home, so he ensures.
A gain of guilt that
deathless aye endures.
He who thinks
lightly of going into the wife of another acquires guilt that will
abide with him imperishably and for ever.
Who home ivades,
from him pass nevermore,
Hatred and sin,
fear, foul disgrace; these four.
Hatred, sin, fear,
disgrace; these four will never leave him who goes in to his
Who sees the wife,
another's own, with no desiring eye
In sure domestic
bliss he dwelleth ever virtuously.
He who desires
not the womanhood of her who should walk according to the will of
another will be praised as a virtuous house-holder.
that looks not on another's wife,
Is not virtue
merely, 'tis full 'propriety' of life.
That noble manliness
which looks not at the wife of another is the virtue and dignity of
Who 're good indeed,
on earth begirt by ocean's gruesome tide?
The men who touch
not her that is another's bride.
Is it asked, "who
are those who shall obtain good in this world surrounded by the
terror-producing sea ?" Those who touch not the shoulder of her who
belongs to another.
bounds he pass, and evil deeds hath wrought;
At least, 'tis good
if neighbour's wife he covet not.
Though a man
perform no virtuous deeds and commit (every) vice, it will be well
if he desire not the womanhood of her who is within the limit (of
the house) of another.
1.2.12. The Possession
of Patience, Forbearance
As earth bears up
the men who delve into her breast,
To bear with
scornful men of virtues is the best.
To bear with those who
revile us, just as the earth bears up those who dig it, is the first
is good always;
Forgetting them hath
even higher praise;
Bear with reproach even
when you can retaliate; but to forget it will be still better than
The sorest poverty
is bidding guest unfed depart;
The mightiest might
to bear with men of foolish heart.
To neglect hospitality
is poverty of poverty. To bear with the ignorant is might of might.
Seek'st thou honour
never tarnished to retain;
So must thou
patience, guarding evermore, maintain.
If you desire
that greatness should never leave, you preserve in your conduct the
exercise of patience.
Who wreak their
wrath as worthless are despised;
forbear as gold are prized.
(The wise) will
not at all esteem the resentful. They will esteem the patient just
as the gold which they lay up with care.
Who wreak their
wrath have pleasure for a day;
Who bear have praise
till earth shall pass away.
The pleasure of
the resentful continues for a day. The praise of the patient will
continue until (the final destruction of) the world.
Though others work
thee ill, thus shalt thou blessing reap;
Grieve for their
sin, thyself from vicious action keep!
inflict injuries on you, yet compassionating the evil (that will
come upon them) it will be well not to do them anything contrary to
pride when men with injuries assail,
By thine own
righteous dealing shalt thou mightily prevail.
Let a man by patience
overcome those who through pride commit excesses.
transgressors' evil words endure
With patience, are
as stern ascetics pure.
Those who bear with the
uncourteous speech of the insolent are as pure as the ascetics.
Though 'great' we deem the
men that fast and suffer pain, Who others' bitter words
endure, the foremost place obtain.
Those who endure
abstinence from food are great, next to those who endure the
uncourteous speechof others.
1.2.13 Not Envying
decorum's' laws, that all men bind,
Let each regard
unenvying grace of mind.
Let a man esteem that
disposition which is free from envy in the same manner as propriety
If man can learn to
envy none on earth,
'Tis richest gift,
-beyond compare its worth.
Amongst all attainable
excellences there is none equal to that of being free from envy
Nor wealth nor
virtue does that man desire 'tis plain,
Whom others' wealth
delights not, feeling envious pain.
Of him who
instead of rejoicing in the wealth of others, envies it, it will be
said "he neither desires virtue not wealth."
The wise through
envy break not virtue's laws,
Knowing ill-deeds of
foul disgrace the cause.
knowing the misery that comes from transgression will not through
envy commit unrighteous deeds.
Envy they have
within! Enough to seat their fate!
Though foemen fail,
envy can ruin consummate.
To those who
cherish envy that is enough. Though free from enemies that (envy)
will bring destruction.
Who scans good gifts to
others given with envious eye,
His kin, with none
to clothe or feed them, surely die.
He who is envious
at a gift (made to another) will with his relations utterly perish
destitute of food and rainment.
From envious man
good fortune's goddess turns away,
Grudging him good,
and points him out misfortune's prey.
Lakshmi envying (the
prosperity) of the envious man will depart and introduce him to her
Envy, embodied ill,
Good fortune slays,
and soul consigns to fiery pain.
Envy will destroy
(a man's) wealth (in his world) and drive him into the pit of fire
(in the world to come.)
To men of envious
heart, when comes increase of joy,
Or loss to blameless
men, the 'why' will thoughtful hearts employ.
The wealth of a man of
envious mind and the poverty of the righteous will be pondered.
No envious men to
large and full felicity attain;
No men from envy
free have failed a sure increase to gain.
Never have the
envious become great; never have those who are free from envy been
1.2.14 Not Coveting
With soul unjust to
covet others' well-earned store,
Brings ruin to the
home, to evil opes the door.
If a man
departing from equity covet the property (of others), at that very
time will his family be destroyed and guilt be incurred.
Through lust of
gain, no deeds that retribution bring,
Do they, who shrink
with shame from every unjust thing.
Those who blush
at the want of equity will not commit disgraceful acts through
desire of the profit that may be gained.
No deeds of ill,
misled by base desire,
Do they, whose souls
to other joys aspire.
Those who desire
the higher pleasures (of heaven) will not act unjustly through
desire of the trifling joy. (in this life.)
Men who have
conquered sense, with sight from sordid vision freed,
Desire not other's
goods, e'en in the hour of sorest need.
The wise who have
conquered their senses and are free from crime, will not covet (the
things of others), with the thought "we are destitute."
What gain, though
lore refined of amplest reach he learn,
His acts towards all
mankind if covetous desire to folly turn?
What is the
advantage of extensive and accurate knowledge if a man through
covetousness act senselessly towards all ?
desiring, he in virtue's way stand strong,
He's lost who wealth
desires, and ponders deeds of wrong.
If he, who
through desire of the virtue of kindness abides in the domestic
state i.e., the path in which it may be obtained, covet (the
property of others) and think of evil methods (to obtain it), he
Seek not increase by
greed of gain acquired;
That fruit matured
yields never good desired.
Desire not the gain of
covetousness. In the enjoyment of its fruits there is no glory.
prosperity from swift decline?
Absence of lust to
make another's cherished riches thine!
If it is weighed, "what
is the indestructibility of wealth," it is freedom from
Good fortune draws
anigh in helpful time of need,
To him who, schooled
in virtue, guards his soul from greed.
the manner (in which she may approach) will immediately come to
those wise men who, knowing that it is virtue, covet not the
property of others.
From thoughtless lust
of other's goods springs fatal ill,
Greatness of soul
that covets not shall triumph still.
To covet (the
wealth of another) regardless of consequences will bring
destruction. That greatness (of mind) which covets not will give
1.2.15 Not Backbiting
Though virtuous words
his lips speak not, and all his deeds are ill.
If neighbour he
defame not, there's good within him still.
Though one do not
even speak of virtue and live in sin, it will be well if it be said
of him "he does not backbite."
Than he who virtue
scorns, and evil deeds performs, more vile,
Is he that slanders
friend, then meets him with false smile.
deceitfully (in another's presence) after having reviled him to his
destruction (behind his back) is a greater evil than the commission
of (every other) sin and the destruction of (every) virtue.
'Tis greater gain of
virtuous good for man to die,
Than live to slander
absent friend, and falsely praise when nigh.
Death rather than
life will confer upon the deceitful backbiter the profit which (the
treatises on) virtue point out.
In presence though
unkindly words you speak, say not
In absence words
whose ill result exceeds your thought.
Though you speak
without kindness before another's face speak not in his absence
words which regard not the evil subsequently resulting from it.
The slanderous meanness
that an absent friend defames,
'This man in words owns virtue, not in heart,' proclaims.
The emptiness of that
man's mind who (merely) praises virtue will be seen from the
meanness of reviling another behind his back.
Who on his neighbours'
sins delights to dwell,
The story of his
sins, culled out with care, the world will tell.
The character of
the faults of that man who publishes abroad the faults of others
will be sought out and published.
With friendly art
who know not pleasant words to say,
Speak words that
sever hearts, and drive choice friends away.
Those who know
not to live in friendship with amusing conversation will by
back-biting estrange even their relatives.
Whose nature bids them
faults of closest friends proclaim
What mercy will they
show to other men's good name?
What will those
not do to strangers whose nature leads them to publish abroad the
faults of their intimate friends ?
'Tis charity, I
ween, that makes the earth sustain their load.
absence watching, tales or slander tell abroad.
The world through
charity supports the weight of those who reproach others observing
If each his own, as
neighbours' faults would scan,
Could any evil hap
to living man?
If they observed their
own faults as they observe the faults of others, would any evil
happen to men ?
1.2.16 The Not Speaking
Words without sense,
while chafe the wise,
Who babbles, him
will all despise.
He who to the disgust
of many speaks useless things will be despised by all.
Words without sense,
where many wise men hear, to pour
Than deeds to
friends ungracious done offendeth more.
To speak useless
things in the presence of many is a greater evil than to do unkind
things towards friends.
Diffusive speech of
useless words proclaims
A man who never
righteous wisdom gains.
That conversation in
which a man utters forth useless things will say of him "he is
words, said to the multitude, To none delight afford, and sever men
The words devoid
of profit or pleasure which a man speaks will, being inconsistent
with virtue, remove him from goodness.
Gone are both fame
and boasted excellence,
When men of worth
speak of words devoid of sense.
If the good speak vain
words their eminence and excellence will leave them.
Who makes display of
idle words' inanity,
Call him not man,
-chaff of humanity!
Call not him a man who
parades forth his empty words. Call him the chaf of men.
Let those who list
speak things that no delight afford,
'Tis good for men of
worth to speak no idle word.
Let the wise if
they will, speak things without excellence; it will be well for them
not to speak useless things.
The wise who weigh
the worth of every utterance,
Speak none but words
of deep significance.
The wise who seek after
rare pleasures will not speak words that have not much weight in
The men of vision
pure, from wildering folly free,
Not e'en in
thoughtless hour, speak words of vanity.
Those wise men
who are without faults and are freed from ignorance will not even
forgetfully speak things that profit not.
If speak you will,
speak words that fruit afford, If speak you will, speak never
Speak what is useful, and speak not useless words.
1.2.17 Dread of Evil
With sinful act men
cease to feel the dread of ill within,
The excellent will
dread the wanton pride of cherished sin.
Those who have
experience of evil deeds will not fear, but the excellent will fear
the pride of sin.
Since evils new from
evils ever grow,
Evil than fire works
out more dreaded woe.
Because evil produces
evil, therefore should evil be feared more than fire.
Even to those that
hate make no return of ill;
So shalt thou wisdom's
highest law, 'tis said, fulfil.
To do no evil to
enemies will be called the chi ef of all virtues.
Though good thy soul
forget, plot not thy neighbour's fall,
Thy plans shall
'virtue's Power' by ruin to thyself forestall.
forgetfulness meditate not the ruin of another. Virtue will meditate
the ruin of him who thus meditates.
Make not thy poverty
a plea for ill;
Thy evil deeds will
make thee poorer still.
Commit not evil,
saying, "I am poor": if you do, you will become poorer still.
What ranks as evil
spare to do, if thou would'st shun
through ill to thee by others done.
Let him not do evil to
others who desires not that sorrows should pursue him.
From every enmity
incurred there is to 'scape, a way;
The wrath of evil
deeds will dog men's steps, and slay.
However great be
the enmity men have incurred they may still live. The enmity of sin
will incessantly pursue and kill.
Man's shadow dogs his
steps where'er he wends;
Destruction thus on
sinful deeds attends.
dwell at the heels of those who commit evil even as their shadow
that leaves them not.
Beware, if to
thyself thyself is dear,
Lest thou to aught
that ranks as ill draw near!
If a man love himself,
let him not commit any sin however small.
The man, to devious way
of sin that never turned aside,
From ruin rests
secure, whatever ills betide.
Know ye that he is
freed from destruction who commits no evil, going to neither side of
the right path.
1.2.18 The knowledge of
what is Befitting a Man's Position
Duty demands no
recompense; to clouds of heaven,
By men on earth,
what answering gift is given?
Benevolence seeks not a
return. What does the world give back to the clouds ?
The worthy say, when
wealth rewards their toil-spent hours,
For uses of
beneficence alone 'tis ours.
All the wealth acquired
with perseverance by the worthy is for the exercise of benevolence.
To 'due beneficence'
no equal good we know,
Amid the happy gods,
or in this world below.
It is d ifficult to
obtain another good equal to benevolence either in this world or in
that of the gods.
Who knows what's
human life's befitting grace,
He lives; the rest
'mongst dead men have their place.
He truly lives
who knows (and discharges) the proper duties (of benevolence). He
who knows them not will be reckoned among the dead.
The wealth of men
who love the 'fitting way,' the truly wise,
Is as when water
fills the lake that village needs supplies.
The wealth of
that man of eminent knowledge who desires to exercise the
benevolence approved of by the world, is like the full waters of a
A tree that fruits
in th' hamlet's central mart,
Is wealth that falls
to men of liberal heart.
The wealth of a
man (possessed of the virtue) of benevolence is like the ripening of
a fruitful tree in the midst of a town.
Unfailing tree that
healing balm distils from every part,
Is ample wealth that
falls to him of large and noble heart.
If wealth be in
the possession of a man who has the great excellence (of
benevolence), it is like a tree which as a medicine is an infallible
cure for disease.
E'en when resources
fall, they weary not of 'kindness due,'‑
They to whom Duty's
self appears in vision true.
The wise who know what
is duty will not scant their benevolence even when they are without
man is poor in this alone,
When power of doing
deeds of goodness he finds none.
The poverty of a
benevolent man, is nothing but his inability to exercise the same.
'beneficence,' the loss of all should come,
'Twere meet man sold
himself, and bought it with the sum.
If it be said
that loss will result from benevolence, such loss is worth being
procured even by the sale of one's self.
Call that a gift to
needy men thou dost dispense,
All else is void of
good, seeking for recompense.
To give to the
destitute is true charity. All other gifts have the nature of (what
is done for) a measured return.
Though men declare it
heavenward path, yet to receive is ill;
Though upper heaven
were not, to give is virtue still.
To beg is evil,
even though it were said that it is a good path (to heaven). To give
is good, even though it were said that those who do so cannot obtain
'I've nought' is
ne'er the high-born man's reply;
He gives to those
who raise themselves that cry.
(Even in a low
state) not to adopt the mean expedient of saying "I have nothing,"
but to give, is the characteristic of the mad of noble birth.
The suppliants' cry
for aid yields scant delight,
Until you see his
face with grateful gladness bright.
To see men begging from
us in disagreeable, until we see their pleasant countenance.
they're great who hunger's pangs sustain,
Who hunger's pangs
relieve a higher merit gain.
The power of
those who perform penance is the power of enduring hunger. It is
inferior to the power of those who remove the hunger (of others).
Let man relieve the
wasting hunger men endure;
For treasure gained
thus finds he treasure-house secure.
The removal of the
killing hunger of the poor is the place for one to lay up his
Whose soul delights
with hungry men to share his meal,
The hand of hunger's
sickness sore shall never feel.
The fiery disease of
hunger shall never touch him who habitually distributes his food to
Delight of glad'ning
human hearts with gifts do they not know.
Men of unpitying
eye, who hoard their wealth and lose it so?
Do the hard-eyed
who lay up and lose their possessions not know the happiness which
springs from the pleasure of giving ?
They keep their
garners full, for self alone the board they spread;-'Tis greater
pain, be sure, than begging daily bread!
unshared eating for the sake of filling up one's own riches is
certainly much more unpleasant than begging.
'Tis bitter pain to
die, 'Tis worse to live.
For him who nothing
finds to give!
Nothing is more
unpleasant than death: yet even that is pleasant where charity
cannot be exercised.
See that thy life
the praise of generous gifts obtain;
Save this for living
man exists no real gain.
Give to the poor and
live with praise. There is no greater profit to man than that.
The speech of all
that speak agrees to crown
The men that give to
those that ask, with fair renown.
Whatsoever is spoken in
the world will abide as praise upon that man who gives alms to the
Save praise alone
that soars on high,
Nought lives on
earth that shall not die.
There is nothing
that stands forth in the world imperishable, except fame, exalted in
If men do virtuous
deeds by world-wide ample glory crowned,
The heavens will
cease to laud the sage for other gifts renowned.
If one has
acquired extensive fame within the limits of this earth, the world
of the Gods will no longer praise those sages who have attained that
Loss that is gain,
and death of life's true bliss fulfilled,
Are fruits which
only wisdom rare can yield.
Prosperity to the
body of fame, resulting in poverty to the body of flesh and the
stability to the former arising from the death of the latter, are
achievable only by the wise.
If man you walk the
stage, appear adorned with glory's grace;
Save glorious you
can shine, 'twere better hide your face.
If you are born
(in this world), be born with qualities conductive to fame. From
those who are destitute of them it will be better not to be born.
If you your days
will spend devoid of goodly fame,
When men despise,
why blame them? You've yourself to blame.
Why do those who
cannot live with praise, grieve those who despise them, instead of
grieving themselves for their own inability.
Fame is virtue's
child, they say; if, then,
You childless live,
you live the scorn of men.
Not to beget fame will
be esteemed a disgrace by the wise in this world.
The blameless fruits
of fields' increase will dwindle down,
If earth the burthen
bear of men without renown.
The ground which
supports a body without fame will diminish in its rich produce.
Who live without
reproach, them living men we deem;
Who live without
renown, live not, though living men they seem.
Those live who live
without disgrace. Those who live without fame live not.
1.3 Ascetic Virtue
1.3.1. The Possession
Wealth 'mid wealth
is wealth 'kindliness';
Wealth of goods the
vilest too possess.
The wealth of
kindness is wealth of wealth, in as much as the wealth of property
is possessed by the basest of men.
The law of 'grace'
fulfil, by methods good due trial made,
Though many systems
you explore, this is your only aid.
(Stand) in the
good path, consider, and be kind. Even considering according to the
conflicting tenets of the different sects, kindness will be your
best aid, (in the acquisition of heavenly bliss.)
They in whose breast
a 'gracious kindliness' resides,
See not the gruesome
world, where darkness drear abides.
They will never
enter the world of darkness and wretchedness whose minds are the
abode of kindness.
Who for undying souls of
men provides with gracious zeal,
In his own soul the
dreaded guilt of sin shall never feel.
(The wise) say that the
evils, which his soul would dread, will never come upon the
man who exercises kindness and protects the life (of other
The teeming earth's
vast realm, round which the wild winds blow,
Is witness, men of
'grace' no woeful want shall know.
This great rich
earth over which the wind blows, is a witness that sorrow never
comes upon the kind-hearted.
Gain of true wealth
oblivious they eschew,
Who 'grace' forsake,
and graceless actions do.
(The wise) say
that those who neglect kindness and practise cruelties, neglected
virtue (in their former birth), and forgot (the sorrows which they
As to impoverished
men this present world is not;
The 'graceless' in
you world have neither part nor lot.
As this world is
not for those who are without wealth, so that world is not for those
who are without kindness.
Who lose the flower
of wealth, when seasons change, again may bloom;
'benevolence', lose all; nothing can change their doom.
Those who are
without wealth may, at some future time, become prosperous; those
who are destitute of kindness are utterly destitute; for them there
is no change.
When souls unwise
true wisdom's mystic vision see,
The 'graceless' man
may work true works of charity.
If you consider,
the virtue of him who is without kindness is like the perception of
the true being by him who is without wisdom.
When weaker men you
front with threat'ning brow, Think how you felt in presence of some
When a man is
about to rush upon those who are weaker than himself, let him
remember how he has stood (trembling) before those who are stronger
1.3.2 The Renunciation
How can the wont of
'kindly grace' to him be known,
Who other creatures'
flesh consumes to feed his own?
How can he be possessed
of kindness, who to increase his own flesh, eats the flesh of other
No use of wealth
have they who guard not their estate;
No use of grace have
they with flesh who hunger sate.
As those possess
no property who do not take care of it, so those possess no kindness
who feed on flesh.
Like heart of them
that murderous weapons bear, his mind,
Who eats of savoury
meat, no joy in good can find.
(murderous) mind of him who carries a weapon (in his hand), the mind
of him who feasts with pleasure on the body of another (creature),
has no regard for goodness.
'What's grace, or
lack of grace'? 'To kill' is this, that 'not to kill';
To eat dead flesh
can never worthy end fulfil.
If it be asked
what is kindness and what its opposite, the answer would be
preservation and destruction of life; and therefore it is not right
to feed on the flesh (obtained by taking away life).
If flesh you eat
not, life's abodes unharmed remain;
Who eats, hell
swallows him, and renders not again.
Not to eat flesh
contributes to the continuance of life; therefore if a man eat
flesh, hell will not open its mouth (to let him escape out, after he
has once fallen in).
'We eat the slain,'
you say, by us no living creatures die;
Who'd kill and sell,
I pray, if none came there the flesh to buy?
If the world does
not destroy life for the purpose of eating, then no one would sell
flesh for the sake of money.
With other beings'
ulcerous wounds their hunger they appease;
If this they felt,
desire to eat must surely cease.
If men should
come to know that flesh is nothing but the unclean ulcer of a body,
let them abstain from eating it.
Whose souls the
vision pure and passionless perceive,
Eat not the bodies
men of life bereave.
The wise, who
have freed themselves from mental delusion, will not eat the flesh
which has been severed from an animal.
Than thousand rich
oblations, with libations rare,
Better the flesh of
slaughtered beings not to share.
Not to kill and
eat (the flesh of) an animal, is better than the pouring forth of
ghee etc., in a thousand sacrifices.
Who slays nought,-
flesh rejects- his feet before
All living things
with clasped hands adore.
will join their hands together, and worship him who has never taken
away life, nor eaten flesh.
To bear due penitential
pains, while no offence
He causes others, is
the type of 'penitence'.
The nature of
religious discipline consists, in the endurance (by the ascetic) of
the suferings which it brings on himself, and in abstaining from
giving pain to others.
To 'penitents' sincere
avails their 'penitence';
Where that is not,
'tis but a vain pretence.
only be borne, and their benefits enjoyed, by those who have
practised them (in a former birth); it will be useless for those who
have not done so, to attempt to practise them (now).
Have other men
forgotten 'penitence' who strive
To earn for
penitents the things by which they live?
It is to provide
food etc, for the ascetics who have abandoned (the desire of earthly
possessions) that other persons have forgotten (to practise)
Destruction to his
foes, to friends increase of joy.
The 'penitent' can
cause, if this his thoughts employ.
If (the ascetic)
desire the destruction of his enemies, or the aggrandizement of his
friends, it will be effected by (the power of) his austerities.
That what they wish
may, as they wish, be won,
By men on earth are
works of painful 'penance' done.
dislipline is practised in this world, because it secures the
attainment of whatever one may wish to enjoy (in the world to come).
Who works of 'penance'
do, their end attain,
Others in passion's
net enshared, toil but in vain.
their duty who perform austerities; all others accomplish their own
destruction, through the entanglement of the desire (of riches and
The hotter glows the
fining fire, the gold the brighter shines;
The pain of
penitence, like fire, the soul of man refines.
Just as gold is
purified as heated in the fire, will those shine, who have endured
the burning of pain (in frequent austerities).
Who gains himself in
Him worships every
other living soul.
All other creatures
will worship him who has attained the control of his own soul.
E'en over death the
victory he may gain, If power by penance won his soul obtain.
Those who have
attained the power which religious discipline confers, will be able
also to pass the limit of Yama, (the God of death).
The many all things
lack! The cause is plain,
The 'penitents' are
few. The many shun such pain.
Because there are
few who practise austerity and many who do not, there are many
destitute and few rich in this world.
Who with deceitful
mind in false way walks of covert sin,
elements his frame compose, decide within.
The five elements
(of his body) will laugh within him at the feigned conduct of the
deceitful minded man.
What gain, though
virtue's semblance high as heaven his fame exalt,
If heart dies down
through sense of self-detected fault?
What avails an
appearance (of sanctity) high as heaven, if his mind sufers (the
indulgence) of conscious sin.
As if a steer should
graze wrapped round with tiger's skin,
Is show of virtuous
might when weakness lurks within.
appearance of power, by a man who has no power (to restrain his
senses and perform austerity), is like a cow feeding on grass
covered with a tiger's skin.
'Tis as a fowler,
silly birds to snare, in thicket lurks.
When, clad in stern
ascetic garb, one secret evil works.
He who hides
himself under the mask of an ascetic and commits sins, like a
sportsman who conceals himself in the thicket to catch birds.
'Our souls are
free,' who say, yet practise evil secretly,
'What folly have we
wrought!' by many shames o'er-whelmed, shall cry.
The false conduct
of those who say they have renounced all desire will one day bring
them sorrows that will make them cry out, "Oh! what have we done,
what have we done."
In mind renouncing
nought, in speech renouncing every tie,
Who guileful live,-
no men are found than these of 'harder eye'.
men there are none so hard-hearted as those who without to saking
(desire) in their heart, falsely take the appearance of those who
have forsaken (it).
Outward, they shine
as 'kunri' berry's scarlet bright;
Inward, like tip of
'kunri' bead, as black as night.
contains persons whose outside appears (as fair) as the (red) berry
of the Abrus, but whose inside is as black as the nose of that
Many wash in
hollowed waters, living lives of hidden shame; Foul in heart, yet
high upraised of men in virtuous fame.
There are many
men of masked conduct, who perform their ablutions, and (make a
show) of greatness, while their mind is defiled (with guilt).
Cruel is the arrow
straight, the crooked lute is sweet,
Judge by their deeds
the many forms of men you meet.
As, in its use,
the arrow is crooked, and the curved lute is straight, so by their
deeds, (and not by their appearance) let (the uprightness or
crookedness of) men be estimated.
What's the worth of
shaven head or tresses long,
If you shun what all
the world condemns as wrong?
There is no need
of a shaven crown, nor of tangled hair, if a man abstain from those
deeds which the wise have condemned.
1.3.5 The Absence of
Who seeks heaven's
joys, from impious levity secure,
Let him from every
fraud preserve his spirit pure.
Let him, who
desires not to be despised, keep his mind from (the desire of)
defrauding another of the smallest thing.
'Tis sin if in the mind
man but thought conceive;
'By fraud I will my
neighbour of his wealth bereave.'
Even the thought (of
sin) is sin; think not then of crafiily stealing the property of
The gain that comes
by fraud, although it seems to grow
increase, to ruin swift shall go.
The property, which is
acquired by fraud, will entirely perish, even while it seems to
The lust inveterate
of fraudful gain,
Yields as its fruit
The eager desire of
defrauding others will, when it brings forth its fruit, produce
'Grace' is not in
their thoughts, nor know they kind affection's power,
goods desire, and watch for his unguarded hour.
The study of
kindness and the exercise of benevolence is not with those who watch
for another's forgetfulness, though desire of his property.
They cannot walk
restrained in wisdom's measured bound,
In whom inveterate
lust of fraudful gain is found.
They cannot walk
steadfastly, according to rule, who eagerly desire to defraud
Practice of fraud's
dark cunning arts they shun,
Who long for power
by 'measured wisdom' won.
black-knowledge which is called fraud, is not in those who desire
that greatness which is called rectitude.
As virtue dwells in
heart that 'measured wisdom' gains;
Deceit in hearts of
fraudful men established reigns.
Deceit dwells in
the mind of those who are conversant with fraud, even as virtue in
the minds of those who are conversant with rectitude.
Who have no lore save that
which fraudful arts supply, Acts of unmeasured vice
committing straightway die.
Those, who are acquainted with nothing but fraud, will
perish in the very commission oftransgression.
The fraudful forfeit
life and being here below;
Who fraud eschew the
bliss of heavenly beings know.
Even their body
will fail the fraudulent; but even the world of the gods will not
fail those who are free from fraud.
You ask, in lips of
men what 'truth' may be;
'Tis speech from
every taint of evil free.
Truth is the speaking
of such words as are free from the least degree of evil (to others).
Falsehood may take
the place of truthful word,
If blessing, free
from fault, it can afford.
Even falsehood has the
nature of truth, if it confer a benefit that is free from fault.
Speak not a word
which false thy own heart knows
within the false one's spirit glows.
Let not a man
knowingly tell a lie; for after he has told the lie, his mind will
burn him (with the memory of his guilt).
True to his inmost
soul who lives,- enshrined
He lives in souls of
He who, in his conduct,
preserves a mind free from deceit, will dwell in the minds of all
Greater is he who
speaks the truth with full consenting mind. Than men whose lives
have penitence and charity combined.
He, who speaks truth
with all his heart, is superior to those who make gifts and practise
No praise like that
of words from falsehood free;
This every virtue
There is no
praise like the praise of never uttering a falsehood: without
causing any sufering, it will lead to every virtue.
If all your life be
utter truth, the truth alone,
'Tis well, though
other virtuous acts be left undone.
If a man has the
power to abstain from falsehood, it will be well with him, even
though he practise no other virtue.
Outward purity the
water will bestow;
Inward purity from
truth alone will flow.
Purity of body is
produced by water and purity of mind by truthfulness.
Every lamp is not a
lamp in wise men's sight;
That's the lamp with
truth's pure radiance bright.
All lamps of nature are
not lamps; the lamp of truth is the lamp of the wise.
Of all good things we've
scanned with studious care, There's nought that can with
Amidst all that we have seen (described) as
real(excellence), there is nothing sogood as truthfulness.
1.3.7 The power of not
Where thou hast
power thy angry will to work, thy wrath restrain;
Where power is none,
what matter if thou check or give it rein?
He restrains his
anger who restrains it when it can injure; when it cannot injure,
what does it matter whether he restrain it, or not ?
Where power is none
to wreak thy wrath, wrath importent is ill;
Where thou hast
power thy will to work, 'tis greater, evil still.
Anger is bad, even when
it cannot injure; when it can injure; there is no greater evil.
If any rouse thy
wrath, the trespass straight forget;
For wrath an endless
train of evils will beget.
Forget anger towards
every one, as fountains of evil spring from it.
Wrath robs the face of smiles, the
heart of joy,
What other foe to man
works such annoy?
Is there a greater
enemy than anger, which kills both laughter and joy ?
If thou would'st
guard thyself, guard against wrath alway;
'Gainst wrath who
guards not, him his wrath shall slay.
If a man would guard
himself, let him guard against anger; if he do not guard it, anger
will kill him.
Wrath, the fire that
slayeth whose draweth near,
Will burn the
helpful 'raft' of kindred dear.
The fire of anger will
burn up even the pleasant raft of friendship.
The hand that smites
the earth unfailing feels the sting;
So perish they who
nurse their wrath as noble thing.
come upon him who ragards anger as a good thing, as surely as the
hand of him
who strikes the ground will not fail.
Though men should
work thee woe, like touch of tongues of fire.
'Tis well if thou
canst save thy soul from burning ire.
Though one commit
things against you as painful (to bear) as if a bundle of fire had
been thrust upon you, it will be well, to refrain, if possible, from
If man his soul
preserve from wrathful fires,
He gains with that
whate'er his soul desires.
If a man never indulges
anger in his heart, he will at once obtain whatever he has thought
Men of surpassing
wrath are like the men who've passed away;
Who wrath renounce,
equals of all-renouncing sages they.
Those, who give
way to excessive anger, are no better than dead men; but those, who
are freed from it, are equal to those who are freed (from death).
1.3.8 Not doing Evil
Though ill to
neighbour wrought should glorious pride of wealth secure,
No ill to do is
fixed decree of men in spirit pure.
It is the
determination of the spotless not to cause sorrow to others,
although they could (by so causing) obtain the wealth which confers
Though malice work
its worst, planning no ill return, to endure,
And work no ill, is
fixed decree of men in spirit pure.
It is the
determination of the spotless not to do evil, even in return, to
those who have cherished enmity and done them evil.
thy soul malicious foes should sting,
inevitable woes will bring.
In an ascetic
inflict suffering even on those who hate him, when he has not done
them any evil, it will afterwards give him irretrievable sorrow.
To punish wrong,
with kindly benefits the doers ply;
Thus shame their
souls; but pass the ill unheeded by.
punishment to those who have done evil (to you), is to put them to
shame by showing them kindness, in return and to forget both the
evil and the good done on both sides.
vaunted lore what doth the learner gain,
If as his own he
guard not others' souls from pain?
What benefit has
he derived from his knowledge, who does not endeavour to keep of
pain from another as much as from himself ?
What his own soul
has felt as bitter pain,
From making others
feel should man abstain.
Let not a man consent
to do those things to another which, he knows, will cause sorrow.
To work no wilful
woe, in any wise, through all the days,
To any living soul,
is virtue's highest praise.
It is the chief
of all virtues not knowingly to do any person evil, even in the
lowest degree, and at any time.
Whose soul has felt
the bitter smart of wrong, how can
He wrongs inflict on
ever-living soul of man?
Why does a man
inflict upon other creatures those suferings, which he has found by
experience are sufferings to himself ?
If, ere the
noontide, you to others evil do,
Before the eventide
will evil visit you.
If a man inflict
sorrow upon others in the morning, it will come upon him unsought in
the very evening.
O'er every evil-doer
evil broodeth still;
He evil shuns who
freedom seeks from ill.
Sorrow will come
upon those who cause pain to others; therfore those, who desire to
be free from sorrow, give no pain to others.
1.3.9 Not killing
What is the work of
virtue? 'Not to kill';
For 'killing' leads
to every work of ill.
Never to destroy life
is the sum of all virtuous conduct. The destruction of life leads to
Let those that need
partake your meal; guard every-thing that lives;
This the chief and
sum of lore that hoarded wisdom gives.
The chief of all
(the virtues) which authors have summed up, is the partaking of food
that has been shared with others, and the preservation of the
mainfold life of other creatures.
Alone, first of
goods things, is 'not to slay';
The second is, no
untrue word to say.
Not to destroy
life is an incomparably (great) good next to it in goodness ranks
freedom from falsehood.
You ask, What is the
good and perfect way?
'Tis path of him who
studies nought to slay.
Good path is that which
considers how it may avoid killing any creature.
Of those who 'being'
dread, and all renounce, the chief are they,
Who dreading crime
of slaughter, study nought to slay.
Of all those who,
fearing the permanence of earthly births, have abandoned desire, he
is the chief who, fearing (the guilt of) murder, considers how he
may avoid the destruction of life.
Ev'n death that life
devours, their happy days shall spare,
Who law, 'Thou shall
not kill', uphold with reverent care.
destroyer of life, will not attack the life of him, who acts under
the determination of never destroying life.
Though thine own
life for that spared life the price must pay,
Take not from aught
that lives gift of sweet life away.
Let no one do
that which would destroy the life of another, although he should by
so doing, lose his own life.
Though great the
gain of good should seem, the wise
Will any gain by
staughter won despise.
which might flow from destroying life in sacrifice, is dishonourable
to the wise (who renounced the world), even although it should be
said to be productive of great good.
Whose trade is
'killing', always vile they show,
To minds of them who
what is vileness know.
Men who destroy life
are base men, in the estimation of those who know the nature of
Who lead a loathed life in
bodies sorely pained,
Are men, the wise declare,
by guilt of slaughter stained.
(The wise) will say
that men of diseased bodies, who live in degradation who
separated the life from the body of animals (in a former
and in poverty, are
Lowest and meanest
lore, that bids men trust secure,
In things that pass
away, as things that shall endure!
which considers those things to be stable which are not so, is
dishonourable (to the wise).
As crowds round
dancers fill the hall, is wealth's increase;
Its loss, as throngs
dispersing, when the dances cease.
of wealth is like the gathering together of an assembly for a
theatre; its expenditure is like the breaking up of that assembly.
Unenduring is all
wealth; if you wealth enjoy,
Enduring works in
working wealth straightway employ.
perishable; let those who obtain it immediately practise those
(virtues) which are imperishable.
As 'day' it vaunts
itself; well understood, 'tis knife',
That daily cuts away
a portion from thy life.
Time, which shows
itself (to the ignorant) as if it were something (real) is in the
estimation of the wise (only) a saw which cuts down life.
Before the tongue
lie powerless, 'mid the gasp of gurgling breath,
Arouse thyself, and
do good deeds beyond the power of death.
Let virtuous deeds be
done quickly, before the biccup comes making the tongue silent.
today to nothing hurled!‑
Such greatness owns
this transitory world.
This world possesses
the greatness that one who yesterday was is not today.
Who know not if
their happy lives shall last the day,
In fancies infinite
beguile the hours away!
the thoughts which occupy the mind of (the unwise), who know not
that they shall live another moment.
Birds fly away, and
leave the nest deserted bare;
Such is the
short-lived friendship soul and body share.
The love of the
soul to the body is like (the love of) a bird to its egg which it
flies away from and leaves empty.
Death is sinking
into slumbers deep;
Birth again is
waking out of sleep.
Death is like sleep;
birth is like awaking from it.
The soul in fragile
shed as lodger courts repose:-Is it because no home's conclusive
rest it knows?
It seems as if the
soul, which takes a temporary shelter in a body, had not attained a
From whatever, aye,
whatever, man gets free,
From what, aye, from
that, no more of pain hath he!
Whatever thing, a man
has renounced, by that thing; he cannot suffer pain.
ev'n here true pleasures men acquire;
time is yet, if to those pleasures you aspire.
After a man has
renounced (all things), there will still be many things in this
world (which he may enjoy); if he should desire them, let him, while
it is time abandon. (the world).
'Perceptions of the
five' must all expire;‑
Relinquished in its
order each desire
Let the five
senses be destroyed; and at the same time, let everything be
abandoned that (the ascetic) has (formerly) desired.
is penance true;
To be altogether
destitute is the proper condition of those who perform austerities;
if they possess anything, it will change (their resolution) and
bring them back to their confused state.
To those who
sev'rance seek from being's varied strife,
Flesh is burthen
sore; what then other bonds of life?
What means the
addition of other things those who are attempting to cut of (future)
births, when even their body is too much (for them).
Who kills conceit
that utters 'I' and 'mine',
Shall enter realms
above the powers divine.
He who destroys
the pride which says "I", "mine" will enter a world which is
dificult even to the Gods to attain.
Who cling to things
that cling and eager clasp,
Griefs cling to
them with unrelaxing grasp.
Sorrows will never let
go their hold of those who give not up their hold of desire.
'renounce' on highest height are set;
The rest bewildered,
lie entangled in the net.
Those who have
entirely renounced (all things and all desire) have obtained
(absorption into God); all others wander in confusion, entangled in
the net of (many) births.
When that which
clings falls off, severed is being's tie;
All else will then
be seen as instability.
At the moment in
which desire has been abandoned, (other) births will be cut of; when
that has not been done, instability will be seen.
Cling thou to that
which He, to Whom nought clings, hath bid thee cling,
Cling to that bond,
to get thee free from every clinging thing.
Desire the desire of
Him who is without desire; in order to renounce desire, desire that
1.3.12 Knowledge of the
Of things devoid of
truth as real things men deem;‑
Cause of degraded
birth the fond delusive dream!
are produced by the confusion (of mind) which considers those things
to be real which are not real.
and rapture springs to men who see,
The mystic vision
pure, from all delusion free.
A clear, undimmed
vision of things will deliver its possessors from the darkness of
future births, and confer the felicity (of heaven).
disperse, and mists of error roll
Away, nearer is
heav'n than earth to sage's soul.
Heaven is nearer than
earth to those men of purified minds who are freed from from doubt.
gained, what benefits accrue
To them whose spirits lack
perception of the true?
Even those who have all
the knowledge which can be attained by the five senses, will
derive no benefit from it, if they are without a knowledge
of the true nature of things.
Whatever thing, of
whatsoever kind it be,
'Tis wisdom's part
in each the very thing to see.
is the perception concerning every thing of whatever kind, that that
thing is the true thing.
Who learn, and here
the knowledge of the true obtain,
Shall find the path
that hither cometh not again.
They, who in this
birth have learned to know the True Being, enter the road which
returns not into this world.
The mind that knows
with certitude what is, and ponders well,
Its thoughts on
birth again to other life need not to dwell.
Let it not be
thought that there is another birth for him whose mind having
thoroughly considered (all it has been taught) has known the True
When folly, cause of
births, departs; and soul can view
The truth of things,
man's dignity- 'tis wisdom true.
consists in the removal of ignorance; which is (the cause of)
births, and the perception of the True Being who is (the bestower
The true 'support'
who knows- rejects 'supports' he sought before‑
Sorrow that clings
all destroys, shall cling to him no more.
He who so lives
as to know Him who is the support of all things and abandon all
desire, will be freed from the evils which would otherwise cleave to
him and destroy (his efforts after absorption.
When lust and wrath
and error's triple tyranny is o'er,
Their very names for
aye extinct, then pain shall be no more.
If the very names
of these three things, desire, anger, and confusion of mind, be
destroyed, then will also perish evils (which flow from them).
1.3.8 The Extirpation
The wise declare,
through all the days, to every living thing.
That ceaseless round
of birth from seed of strong desire doth spring.
(The wise) say that the
seed, which produces unceasing births, at all times, to all
creatures, is desire.
If desire you feel,
freedom from changing birth require!
'I' will come, if
you desire to 'scape, set free from all desire.
If anything be
desired, freedom from births should be desired; that (freedom from
births) will be attained by desiring to be without desire.
No glorious wealth is here
like freedom from desire; To bliss like this not even there
can soul aspire.
There is in this world
no excellence equal to freedom from desire; and even in that
world, there is nothing like it.
Desire's decease as
purity men know;
That, too, from
yearning search for truth will grow.
Purity (of mind)
consists in freedom from desire; and that (freedom from desire) is
the fruit of the love of truth.
Men freed from bonds
of strong desire are free;
None other share
such perfect liberty.
They are said to
be free (from future birth) who are freed from desire; all others
(who, whatever else they may be free from, are not freed from
desire) are not thus free.
Desire each soul
True virtue dreads
It is the chief
duty of (an ascetic) to watch against desire with (jealous) fear;
for it has power to deceive (and destroy) him.
Who thoroughly rids
his life of passion-prompted deed,
Deeds of unfailing
worth shall do, which, as he plans, succeed.
If a man
thoroughly cut of all desire, the deeds, which confer immortality,
will come to him, in the path in which he seeks them.
Affliction is not
known where no desires abide;
Where these are,
endless rises sorrow's tide.
There is no
sorrow to those who are without desire; but where that is, (sorrow)
will incessantly come, more and more.
When dies away desire,
that woe of woes
Ev'n here the soul
unceasing rapture knows.
Even while in this
body, joy will never depart (from the mind,in which) desire,
that sorrow of sorrows, has been destroyed.
Drive from thy soul
gained the moveless blissful state.
The removal of
desire, whose nature it is never to be satisfied, will immediately
confer a nature that can never be changed.
power of unflinching effort brings;
From fate that takes
away idle remissness springs.
Perseverance comes from
a prosperous fate, and idleness from an adverse fate.
The fate that loss
ordains makes wise men's wisdom foolishness;
The fate that gain
bestows with ampler powers will wisdom bless.
An adverse fate
produces folly, and a prosperous fate produces enlarged knowledge.
In subtle learning
manifold though versed man be,
'The wisdom, truly
his, will gain supremacy.
Although (a man)
may study the most polished treatises, the knowledge which fate has
decreed to him will still prevail.
Two fold the fashion of
the world: some live in fortune's light;
While other some have
souls in wisdom's radiance bright.
There are (through
fate) two different natures in the world, hence the
difFerence (observable in men) in (their acquisition of)
wealth, and in their attainment of knowledge.
All things that good
appear will oft have ill success;
All evil things
prove good for gain of happiness.
acquisition of property, every thing favourable becomes
unfavourable, and (on the other hand) everything unfavourable
becomes favourable, (through the power of fate).
Things not your own
will yield no good, howe'er you guard with pain;
Your own, howe'er
you scatter them abroad, will yours remain.
Whatever is not
conferred by fate cannot be preserved although it be guarded with
most painful care; and that, which fate has made his, cannot be
lost, although one should even take it and throw it away.
Save as the 'sharer'
shares to each in due degree,
To those who
millions store enjoyment scarce can be.
Even those who
gather together millions will only enjoy them, as it has been
determined by the disposer (of all things).
The destitute with
ascetics merit share,
If fate to visit
with predestined ills would spare.
will renounce desire (and become ascetics), if (fate) do not make
them sufer the hindrances to which they are liable, and they pass
When good things
come, men view them all as gain;
When evils come, why
then should they complain?
How is it that
those, who are pleased with good fortune, trouble themselves when
evil comes, (since both are equally the decree of fate) ?
What powers so great
as those of Destiny? Man's skill
Some other thing
contrives; but fate's beforehand still.
What is stronger
than fate ? If we think of an expedient (to avert it), it will
itself be with us before (the thought).
PART II. WEALTH
2.1.1 The Greatness of
An army, people,
wealth, a minister, friends, fort: six things‑
Who owns them all, a
lion lives amid the kings.
He who possesses
these six things, an army, a people, wealth, ministers, friends and
a fortress, is a lion among kings.
Courage, a liberal
hand, wisdom, and energy: these four
Are qualities a king
adorn for evermore.
Never to fail in
these four things, fearlessness, liberality, wisdom, and energy, is
promptitude, knowledge, decision strong:
These three for aye
to rulers of the land belong.
things, viz., vigilance, learning, and bravery, should never be
wanting in the ruler of a country.
Kingship, in virtue
failing not, all vice restrains,
In courage failing
not, it honour's grace maintains.
He is a king who, with
manly modesty, swerves not from virtue, and refrains from vice.
A king is he who
treasure gains, stores up, defends,
And duly for his
kingdom's weal expends.
He is a king who is
able to acquire (wealth), to lay it up, to guard, and to distribute
Where king is easy
of access, where no harsh word repels,
That land's high
praises every subject swells.
The whole world
will exalt the country of the king who is easy of access, and who is
free from harsh language.
speech, who gives and guards with powerful liberal hand,
He sees the world
obedient all to his command.
The world will
praise and submit itself to the mind of the king who is able to give
with afability, and to protect all who come to him.
Who guards the realm
and justice strict maintains, That king as god o'er subject people
That king, will
be esteemed a God among men, who performs his own duties, and
protects (his subjects).
The king of worth,
who can words bitter to his ear endure,
Beneath the shadow
of his power the world abides secure.
The whole world will
dwell under the umbrella of the king, who can bear words that
embitter the ear.
Gifts, grace, right
sceptre, care of people's weal;
These four a light
of dreaded kings reveal.
He is the light
of kings who has there four things, beneficence, benevolence,
rectitude, and care for his people.
So learn that you
may full and faultless learning gain,
Then in obedience
meet to lessons learnt remain.
Let a man learn
thoroughly whatever he may learn, and let his conduct be worthy of
The twain that lore
of numbers and of letters give Are eyes, the wise declare, to all on
earth that live. Letters and numbers
are the two eyes of man.
Men who learning
gain have eyes, men say;
pairs of sores display.
The learned are said to
have eyes, but the unlearned have (merely) two sores in their face.
You meet with joy,
with pleasant thought you part;
Such is the learned
scholar's wonderous art!
It is the part of
the learned to give joy to those whom they meet, and on leaving, to
make them think (Oh! when shall we meet them again.)
With soul submiss
they stand, as paupers front a rich man's face;
Yet learned men are
first; th'unlearned stand in lowest place.
The unlearned are
inferior to the learned, before whom they stand begging, as the
destitute before the wealthy.
In sandy soil, when
deep you delve, you reach the springs below;
The more you learn,
the freer streams of wisdom flow.
Water will flow
from a well in the sand in proportion to the depth to which it is
dug, and knowledge will flow from a man in proportion to his
The learned make
each land their own, in every city find a home;
Who, till they die;
learn nought, along what weary ways they roam!
How is it that
any one can remain without learning, even to his death, when (to the
learned man) every country is his own (country), and every town his
own (town) ?
The man who store of
In one, through
seven worlds, bliss attains.
The learning, which a
man has acquired in one birth, will yield him pleasure during seven
Their joy is joy of
all the world, they see; thus more
The learners learn
to love their cherished lore.
The learned will
long (for more learning), when they see that while it gives pleasure
to themselves, the world also derives pleasure from it.
excellence of wealth that none destroy;
To man nought else
affords reality of joy.
Learning is the true
imperishable riches; all other things are not riches.
Like those at
draughts would play without the chequered square,
Men void of ample
lore would counsels of the learned share.
To speak in an
assembly (of the learned) without fullness of knowledge, is like
playing at chess (on a board) without squares.
Like those who doat
on hoyden's undeveloped charms are they,
Of learning void,
who eagerly their power of words display.
The desire of the
unlearned to speak (in an assembly), is like a woman without breasts
desiring (the enjoyment of ) woman-hood.
The blockheads, too,
may men of worth appear,
If they can keep
from speaking where the learned hear!
The unlearned also are
very excellent men, if they know how to keep silence before the
lips, when words of wisdom glibly flow,
The wise receive
them not, though good they seem to show.
natural knowledge of an unlearned man may be very good, the wise
will not accept for true knowledge.
As worthless shows
the worth of man unlearned, When council meets, by words he speaks
of an unlearned man will fade away, as soon as he speaks in an
assembly (of the learned).
'They are': so much
is true of men untaught;
But, like a barren
field, they yield us nought!
The unlearned are like
worthless barren land: all that can be said of them is, that they
Who lack the power
of subtle, large, and penetrating sense,
Like puppet, decked
with ornaments of clay, their beauty's vain pretence.
The beauty and
goodness of one who is destitute of knowledge by the study of great
and exquisite works, is like (the beauty and goodness) of a painted
To men unlearned,
from fortune's favour greater-evil springs
Than poverty to men
of goodly wisdom brings.
Wealth, gained by
the unlearned, will give more sorrow than the poverty which may come
upon the learned.
Lower are men
unlearned, though noble be their race,
Than low-born men
adorned with learning's grace.
though born in a high caste, are not equal in dignity to the
learned; though they may have been born in a low caste.
irradiating grace who gain,
Others excel, as men
the bestial train.
As beasts by the
side of men, so are other men by the side of those who are learned
in celebrated works.
Wealth of wealth is
wealth acquired be ear attent;
Wealth mid all
wealth supremely excellent.
Wealth (gained) by the
ear is wealth of wealth; that wealth is the chi ef of all wealth.
When 'tis no longer
time the listening ear to feed
With trifling dole
of food supply the body's need.
When there is no food
for the ear, give a little also to the stomach.
Who feed their ear
with learned teachings rare,
Are like the happy
gods oblations rich who share.
Those who in this
world enjoy instruction which is the food of the ear, are equal to
the Gods, who enjoy the food of the sacrifices.
Though learning none
hath he, yet let him hear alway:
In weakness this
shall prove a staff and stay.
Although a man be
without learning, let him listen (to the teaching of the learned);
that will be to him a staf in adversity.
Like staff in hand
of him in slippery ground who strays
Are words from mouth
of those who walk in righteous ways. The words of the good are
like a staf in a slippery place.
Let each man good
things learn, for e'en as he
Shall learn, he
gains increase of perfect dignity.
Let a man listen, never
so little, to good (instruction), even that will bring him great
Not e'en through
inadvertence speak they foolish word,
discerning mind who've learning's ample lessons heard.
Not even when
they have imperfectly understood (a matter), will those men speak
foolishly, who have profoundly studied and diligently listened (to
Where teaching hath
not oped the learner's ear,
The man may listen,
but he scarce can hear.
The ear which has not
been bored by instruction, although it hears, is deaf.
'Tis hard for mouth
to utter gentle, modest word,
When ears discourse
of lore refined have never heard.
It is a rare
thing to find modesty, a reverend mouth- with those who have not
received choice instruction.
His mouth can taste,
but ear no taste of joy can give!
What matter if he
die, or prosperous live?
What does it
matter whether those men live or die, who can judge of tastes by the
mouth, and not by the ear ?
2.1.5 The Possession of
True wisdom wards
off woes, A circling fortress high;
Its inner strength
man's eager foes Unshaken will defy.
Wisdom is a weapon to
ward off destruction; it is an inner fortress which enemies cannot
nor suffers mind to wander where it would;
From every evil
calls it back, and guides in way of good.
Not to permit the mind
to go where it lists, to keep it from evil, and to employ it in
good, this is wisdom.
diverse from divers sages' lips we learn,
'Tis wisdom's part
in each the true thing to discern.
To discern the truth in
every thing, by whomsoever spoken, is wisdom.
Wisdom hath use of
lucid speech, words that acceptance win,
And subtle sense of
other men's discourse takes in.
To speak so as
that the meaning may easily enter the mind of the hearer, and to
discern the subtlest thought which may lie hidden in the words of
others, this is wisdom.
frank the world, to no caprice exposed;
Unlike the lotus
flower, now opened wide, now petals strictly closed.
To secure the
friendship of the great is true wisdom; it is (also) wisdom to keep
(that friendship unchanged, and) not opening and closing (like the
As dwells the world,
so with the world to dwell In harmony- this is to wisely live and
well. To live as the world lives, is wisdom.
The wise discern,
the foolish fail to see,
And minds prepare
for things about to be.
The wise are
those who know beforehand what will happen; those who do not know
this are the unwise.
Folly meets fearful
ills with fearless heart;
To fear where cause
of fear exists is wisdom's part.
Not to fear what ought
to be feared, is folly; it is the work of the wise to fear what
should be feared.
The wise with
watchful soul who coming ills foresee;
From coming evil's
dreaded shock are free.
No terrifying calamity
will happen to the wise, who (foresee) and guard against coming
The wise is rich,
with ev'ry blessing blest;
The fool is poor, of
Those who possess
wisdom, possess every thing; those who have not wisdom, whatever
they may possess, have nothing.
Correction of Faults
Who arrogance, and
wrath, and littleness of low desire restrain, To sure increase of
lofty dignity attain.
Truly great is the
excellence of those (kings) who are free from pride, anger, and
A niggard hand,
o'erweening self-regard, and mirth
disgrace to men of kingly brith.
pride, and low pleasures are faults in a king.
Though small as
millet-seed the fault men deem;
As palm tree vast to
those who fear disgrace 'twill seem.
Those who fear
guilt, if they commit a fault small as a millet seed, will consider
it to be as large as a palm yra tree.
Freedom from faults
is wealth; watch heedfully
'Gainst these, for
fault is fatal enmity.
Guard against faults as
a matter (of great consequence; for) faults are a deadly enemy.
His joy who guards
not 'gainst the coming evil day,
Like straw before
the fire shall swift consume away.
The prosperity of him
who does not timely guard against faults, will perish like straw
Faultless the king
who first his own faults cures, and then
Permits himself to
scan faults of other men.
What fault will remain
in the king who has put away his own evils, and looks after the
evils of others.
Who leaves undone
what should be done, with niggard mind,
His wealth shall
perish, leaving not a wrack behind.
The wealth of the
avaricious man, who does not expend it for the purposes for which he
ought to expend it will waste away and not continue.
The greed of soul
that avarice men call,
When faults are
summed, is worst of all.
Griping avarice is not
to be reckoned as one among other faults; (it stands alone - greater
Never indulge in
Nor deed desire that
yields no gain of good.
Let no (one) praise
himself, at any time; let him not desire to do useless things.
If, to your foes
unknown, you cherish what you love,
Counsels of men who
wish you harm will harmless prove.
If (a king) enjoys,
privately the things which he desires, the designs of his enemies
will be useless.
2.1.7 Seeking the Aid
of Great Men
As friends the men who
virtue know, and riper wisdom share, Their worth weighed
well, the king should choose with care.
Let (a king) ponder
well its value, and secure the friendship of men of virtue
and of mature knowledge.
all-accomplished men as friends,
Whose skill the
present ill removes, from coming ill defends.
Let (a king)
procure and kindly care for men who can overcome dificulties when
they occur, and guard against them before they happen.
To cherish men of
mighty soul, and make them all their own,
Of kingly treasures
rare, as rarest gift is known.
To cherish great men
and make them his own, is the most difficult of all difficult
To live with men of
greatness that their own excels,
friends, is greatest power that with a monarch dwells.
So to act as to make
those men, his own, who are greater than himself is of all powers
The king, since
counsellors are monarch's eyes,
select with counsel wise.
As a king must
use his ministers as eyes (in managing his kingdom), let him well
examine their character and qualifications before he engages them.
The king, who knows
to live with worthy men allied,
Has nought to fear
from any foeman's pride.
There will be
nothing left for enemies to do, against him who has the power of
acting (so as to secure) the fellowship of worthy men.
What power can work
his fall, who faithful ministers
thunder out reproaches when he errs.
Who are great enough to
destroy him who has servants that have power to rebuke him ?
The king with none
to censure him, bereft of safeguards all,
Though none his ruin
work, shall surely ruined fall.
The king, who is
without the guard of men who can rebuke him, will perish, even
though there be no one to destroy him.
Who owns no
principal, can have no gain of usury; Who lacks support of friends,
knows no stability.
There can be no
gain to those who have no capital; and in like manner there can be
no permanence to those who are without the support of adherents.
Than hate of many
foes incurred, works greater woe
Ten-fold, of worthy
men the friendship to forego.
It is tenfold more
injurious to abandon the friendship of the good, than to incur the
hatred of the many.
2.1.8. Avoiding mean
The great of soul
will mean association fear;
The mean of soul
regard mean men as kinsmen dear.
fears the society of the base; it is only the low - minded who will
regard them as friends.
The waters' virtues
change with soil through which they flow;
companionship so will his wisdom show.
As water changes
(its nature), from the nature of the soil (in which it flows), so
will the character of men resemble that of their associates.
in men are of the mind alone;
The value of the man
by his companionship is known.
The power of knowing is
from the mind; (but) his character is from that of his associates.
Man's wisdom seems
the offspring of his mind;
'Tis outcome of
companionship we find.
Wisdom appears to rest
in the mind, but it really exists to a man in his companions.
Both purity of mind,
and purity of action clear,
Leaning no staff of
pure companionship, to man draw near.
Chaste company is the
staf on which come, these two things, viz, purity of mind and purity
pure-minded men a virtuous race proceeds;
To men of pure
companionship belong no evil deeds.
pure-minded there will be a good posterity. By those whose
associates are pure, no deeds will be done that are not good.
Goodness of mind to
lives of men increaseth gain;
companionship doth all of praise obtain.
Goodness of mind will
give wealth, and good society will bring with it all praise, to men.
To perfect men, though
minds right good belong,
Yet good companionship
is confirmation strong.
Although they may have
great (natural) goodness of mind, yet good society will tend to
Although to mental
goodness joys of other life belong,
companionship is confirmation strong.
Future bliss is
(the result) of goodness of mind; and even this acquires strength
from the society of the good.
Than good companionship no surer
help we know;
Than bad companionship nought
causes direr woe.
There is no greater help than
the company of the good; there is no greater source of sorrow than
the company of the wicked.
Acting after due Consideration
and profit of the deed
In time to come;
weigh these- than to the act proceed.
Let a man reflect
on what will be lost, what will be acquired and (from these) what
will be his ultimate gain, and (then, let him) act.
With chosen friends
deliberate; next use the private thought;
Then act. By those
who thus proceed all works with ease are wrought.
There is nothing
too dificult to (be attained by) those who, before they act, reflect
well themselves, and thoroughly consider (the matter) with chosen
To risk one's all
and lose, aiming at added gain,
Is rash affair, from
which the wise abstain.
Wise men will not, in
the hopes of profit, undertake works that will consume their
A work of which the
issue is not clear,
Begin not they
reproachful scorn who fear.
Those who fear
reproach will not commence anything which has not been (thoroughly
considered) and made clear to them.
With plans not well
matured to rise against your foe,
Is way to plant him
out where he is sure to grow!
One way to
promote the prosperity of an enemy, is (for a king) to set out (to
war) without having thoroughly weighed his ability (to cope with its
'Tis ruin if man do
an unbefitting thing;
Fit things to leave
undone will equal ruin bring.
He will perish
who does not what is not fit to do; and he also will perish who does
not do what it is fit to do.
Think, and then dare
the deed! Who cry,
'Deed dared, we'll
think,' disgraced shall be.
Consider, and then
undertake a matter; after having undertaken it, to say "We will
consider," is folly.
On no right system
if man toil and strive,
Though many men
assist, no work can thrive.
The work, which is not
done by suitable methods, will fail though many stand to uphold it.
Though well the work
be done, yet one mistake is made,
To habitudes of
various men when no regard is paid.
failures even in acting well, when it is done without knowing the
various dispositions of
Plan and perform no
work that others may despise;
What misbeseems a
king the world will not approve as wise.
Let a man
reflect, and do things which bring no reproach; the world will not
approve, with him, of things which do not become of his position to
The Knowledge of Power
The force the strife
demands, the force he owns, the force of foes, The force of friends;
these should he weigh ere to the war he goes.
Let (one) weigh
well the strength of the deed (he purposes to do), his own strength,
the strength of his enemy, and the strength of the allies (of both),
and then let him act.
Who know what can be
wrought, with knowledge of the means, on this,
Their mind firm set,
go forth, nought goes with them amiss.
There is nothing
which may not be accomplished by those who, before they attack (an
enemy), make themselves acquainted with their own ability, and with
whatever else is (needful) to be
known, and apply themselves wholly to their object.
Ill-deeming of their
proper powers, have many monarchs striven,
And midmost of
unequal conflict fallen asunder riven.
There are many
who, ignorant of their (want of) power (to meet it), have haughtily
set out to war, and broken down in the midst of it.
Who not agrees with
those around, no moderation knows, In self-applause indulging, swift
to ruin goes.
He will quickly
perish who, ignorant of his own resources flatters himself of his
greatness, and does not live in peace with his neighbours.
feathers light, you load the wain;
Yet, heaped too
high, the axle snaps in twain.
The axle tree of a
bandy, loaded only with peacocks' feathers will break, if it be
Who daring climbs,
and would himself upraise
Beyond the branch's
tip, with life the forfeit pays.
There will be an
end to the life of him who, having climbed out to the end of a
branch, ventures to go further.
With knowledge of
the measure due, as virtue bids you give!
That is the way to
guard your wealth, and seemly live.
Let a man know
the measure of his ability (to give), and let him give accordingly;
such giving is the way to preserve his property.
Incomings may be
scant; but yet, no failure there,
If in expenditure
you rightly learn to spare.
Even though the
income (of a king) be small, it will not cause his (ruin), if his
outgoings be not larger than his income.
Who prosperous lives
and of enjoyment knows no bound, His seeming wealth, departing,
nowhere shall be found.
The prosperity of
him who lives without knowing the measure (of his property), will
perish, even while it seems to continue.
measures not its bound of means,
Will swiftly bring
to nought the wealth on which it leans.
The measure of
his wealth will quickly perish, whose liberality weighs not the
measure of his property.
Knowing the fitting Time
A crow will conquer
owl in broad daylight;
The king that foes
would crush, needs fitting time to fight.
A crow will
overcome an owl in the day time; so the king who would conquer his
enemy must have (a suitable) time.
The bond binds
fortune fast is ordered effort made,
still of favouring season's aid.
Acting at the right
season, is a cord that will immoveably bind success (to a king).
Can any work be hard
in very fact,
If men use fitting
means in timely act?
Is there anything
dificult for him to do, who acts, with (the right) instruments at
the right time ?
The pendant world's
dominion may be won,
In fitting time and
place by action done.
Though (a man)
should meditate (the conquest of) the world, he may accomplish it if
he acts in the right time, and at the right place.
Who think the
pendant world itself to subjugate,
With mind unruffled
for the fitting time must wait.
thoughtfully consider and wait for the (right) time (for action),
meditate (the conquest of) the world.
The men of mighty
power their hidden energies repress,
As fighting ram
recoils to rush on foe with heavier stress.
self-restraint of the energetic (while waiting for a suitable
opportunity), is like the drawing back of a fighting-ram in order to
The glorious once of
wrath enkindled make no outward show,
At once; they bide
their time, while hidden fires within them glow.
The wise will not
immediately and hastily shew out their anger; they will watch their
time, and restrain it within.
If foes' detested
form they see, with patience let them bear;
When fateful hour at
last they spy,- the head lies there.
If one meets his
enemy, let him show him all respect, until the time for his
destruction is come; when that is come, his head will be easily
When hardest gain of
opportunity at last is won,
With promptitude let
hardest deed be done.
If a rare
opportunity occurs, while it lasts, let a man do that which is
rarely to be accomplished (but for such an opportunity).
As heron stands with
folded wing, so wait in waiting hour;
As heron snaps its
prey, when fortune smiles, put forth your power.
At the time when
one should use self-control, let him restrain himself like a heron;
and, let him like it, strike, when there is a favourable
2.1.12. Knowing the
Begin no work of
war, depise no foe,
Till place where you
can wholly circumvent you know.
Let not (a king)
despise (an enemy), nor undertake any thing (against him), until he
has obtained (a suitable) place for besieging him.
Though skill in war
combine with courage tried on battle-field,
The added gain of
fort doth great advantage yield.
Even to those who
are men of power and expedients, an attack in connection with a
fortification will yield many advantages.
E'en weak ones
mightily prevail, if place of strong defence,
They find, protect
themselves, and work their foes offence.
powerless will become powerful and conquer, if they select a proper
field (of action), and guard themselves, while they make war on
The foes who thought
to triumph, find their thoughts were vain,
If hosts advance,
seize vantage ground, and thence the fight maintain.
If they who draw
near (to fight) choose a suitable place to approach (their enemy),
the latter, will have to relinquish the thought which they once
entertained, of conquering them.
prevails in its own flow of water wide,
If this it leaves,
'tis slain by anything beside.
In deep water, a
crocodile will conquer (all other animals); but if it leave the
water, other animals will conquer it.
The lofty car, with
mighty wheel, sails not o'er watery main,
The boat that skims
the sea, runs not on earth's hard plain.
with mighty wheels, will not run on the ocean; neither will ships
that the traverse ocean, move on the earth.
Save their own
fearless might they need no other aid,
If in right place
they fight, all due provision made.
You will need no
other aid than fearlessness, if you thoroughly reflect (on what you
are to do), and select (a suitable) place for your operations.
If lord of army vast
the safe retreat assail
Of him whose host is
small, his mightiest efforts fail.
The power of one
who has a large army will perish, if he goes into ground where only
a small army can act.
Though fort be none,
and store of wealth they lack,
'Tis hard a people's
homesteads to attack!
It is a hazardous
thing to attack men in their own country, although they may neither
have power nor a good fortress.
The jackal slays, in
miry paths of foot-betraying fen,
The elephant of
fearless eye and tusks transfixing armed men.
A fox can kill a
fearless, warrior-faced elephant, if it go into mud in which its
legs sink down.
2.1.13. Selection and
How treats he
virtue, wealth and pleasure? How, when life's at stake,
This four-fold test of man will full assurance make.
Let (a minister)
be chosen, after he has been tried by means of these four things,
viz,-his virtue, (love of) money, (love of) sexual pleasure, and
tear of (losing) life.
Of noble race, of
faultless worth, of generous pride
That shrinks from
shame or stain; in him may king confide.
choice should (fall) on him, who is of good family, who is free from
faults, and who has the modesty which fears the wounds (of sin).
learned, unflecked by fault, 'tis rare to see,
scanned, a man from all unwisdom free.
When even men,
who have studied the most dificult works, and who are free from
faults, are (carefully) examined, it is a rare thing to find them
Weigh well the good
of each, his failings closely scan,
As these or those
prevail, so estimate the man.
Let (a king)
consider (a man's) good qualities, as well as his faults, and then
judge (of his character) by that which prevails.
Of greatness and of
The deeds of each
are touchstone true.
A man's deeds are the
touchstone of his greatness and littleness.
Beware of trusting men who have no
kith of kin;
No bonds restrain such men, no
shame deters from sin.
Let (a king) avoid choosing men
who have no relations; such men have no attachment, and
thereforehave no fear of crime.
By fond affection led who trusts
in men of unwise soul,
Yields all his being up
to folly's blind control.
To choose ignorant men,
through partiality, is the height of folly.
Who trusts an
untried stranger, brings disgrace,
Remediless, on all
Sorrow that will
not leave even his posterity will come upon him chooses a stranger
whose character he has not known.
Trust no man whom
you have not fully tried, When tested, in his prudence proved
Let (a king)
choose no one without previous consideration; after he has made his
choice, let him unhesitatingly select for each such duties as are
Trust where you have
not tried, doubt of a friend to feel,
Once trusted, wounds
inflict that nought can heal.
To make choice of
one who has not been examined, and to entertain doubts respecting
one who has been chosen, will produce irremediable sorrow.
2 .1.14. Selection and
Who good and evil
scanning, ever makes the good his joy;
Such man of virtuous
mood should king employ.
He should be
employed (by a king), whose nature leads him to choose the good,
after having weighed both the evil and the good in any undertaking.
Who swells the revenues,
spreads plenty o'er the land, Seeks out what hinders
progress, his the workman's hand.
Let him do (the king's)
work who can enlarge the sources (of revenue), increase
wealth and considerately prevent the accidents (which would
A loyal love with
wisdom, clearness, mind from avarice free;
Who hath these four
good gifts should ever trusted be.
Let the choice
(of a king) fall upon him who largely possesses these four things,
love, knowledge, a clear mind and freedom from covetousness.
Even when tests of
every kind are multiplied,
Full many a man
proves otherwise, by action tried!
Even when (a
king) has tried them in every possible way, there are many men who
change, from the nature of the works (in which they may be
No specious fav'rite
should the king's commission bear, But he that knows, and work
performs with patient care.
(A king's) work
can only be accomplished by a man of wisdom and patient endurance;
it is not of a nature to be given to one from mere personal
Let king first ask,
'Who shall the deed perform?' and 'What the deed?'
Of hour befitting
both assured, let every work proceed.
Let (a king) act,
after having considered the agent (whom he is to employ), the deed
(he desires to do), and the time which is suitable to it.
'This man, this work
shall thus work out,' let thoughtful king command;
Then leave the
matter wholly in his servant's hand.
considered, "this man can accomplish this, by these means ", let
(the king) leave with him the discharge of that duty.
As each man's
special aptitude is known,
Bid each man make
that special work his own.
Having considered what
work a man is fit for, let (the king) employ him in that work.
Fortune deserts the
king who ill can bear,
ways of men his tolls who share.
leave (the king) who doubts the friendship of the man who steadily
labours in the discharge of his duties.
Let king search out
his servants' deeds each day;
When these do right,
the world goes rightly on its way.
Let a king daily
examine the conduct of his servants; if they do not act crookedly,
the world will not act crookedly.
2.1.1 5. Cherishing
When wealth is fled,
old kindness still to show,
Is kindly grace that
only kinsmen know.
Even when (a
man's) property is all gone, relatives will act towards him with
their accustomed (kindness).
The gift of kin's unfailing love
Much gain of good, like flower
that fadeless blows.
If (a man's) relatives remain
attached to him with unchanging love, it will be a source of ever-
His joy of life who mingles not
with kinsmen gathered round, Is lake where streams pour in, with no
The wealth of one
who does not mingle freely with his relatives, will be like the
filling of water in a spacious tank that has no banks.
The profit gained by
Is living compassed
round by relatives in peace.
To live surrounded by
relatives, is the advantage to be derived from the acquisition of
Who knows the use of
pleasant words, and liberal gifts can give,
of them, surrounding him shall live.
He will be surrounded
by numerous relatives who manifests generosity and affability.
Than one who gifts
bestows and wrath restrains,
Through the wide
world none larger following gains.
No one, in all
the world, will have so many relatives (about him), as he who makes
large gift, and does not give way to anger.
The crows conceal
not, call their friends to come, then eat;
Increase of good
such worthy ones shall meet.
The crows do not
conceal (their prey), but will call out for others (to share with
them) while they eat it; wealth will be with those who show a
similar disposition (towards their relatives).
Where king regards
not all alike, but each in his degree,
discerning rule many dwell happily.
will live near a king, when they observe that he does not look on
all alike, but that he looks on each man according to his merit.
Who once were his,
and then forsook him, as before
Will come around,
when cause of disagreement is no more.
Those who have
been friends and have afterwards forsaken him, will return and join
themselves (to him), when the cause of disagreement is not to be
found in him.
Who causeless went
away, then to return, for any cause, ask leave;
The king should sift
their motives well, consider, and receive!
When one may have
left him, and for some cause has returned to him, let the king
fulfil the object (for which he has come back) and thoughtfully
receive him again.
'Tis greater ill, it
rapture of o'erweening gladness to the soul
self-forgetfulness than if transcendent wrath control.
More evil than
excessive anger, is forgetfulness which springs from the
intoxication of great joy.
is death to wisdom of the wise;
When man forgets
himself his glory dies!
destroy fame, even as constant poverty destroys knowledge.
men no praise'; this rule
Decisive wisdom sums
of every school.
never acquire fame; and this tenet is upheld by all treatises in the
'To cowards is no
fort's defence'; e'en so
men no blessing know.
Just as the
coward has no defence (by whatever fortifications ha may be
surrounded), so the thoughtless has no good (whatever advantages he
To him who nought
foresees, recks not of anything,
The after woe shall
sure repentance bring.
man, who provides not against the calamities that may happen, will
afterwards repent for his fault.
unswerving, ever watchfulness of soul retain,
Where this is found
there is no greater gain.
There is nothing
comparable with the possession of unfailing thoughtfulness at all
times; and towards all persons.
Though things are
arduous deemed, there's nought may not be won, When work with mind's
unslumbering energy and thought is done.
There is nothing
too dificult to be accomplished, if a man set about it carefully,
with unflinching endeavour.
Let things that
merit praise thy watchful soul employ;
Who these despise
attain through sevenfold births no joy.
Let (a man)
observe and do these things which have been praised (by the wise);
if he neglects and fails to perform them, for him there will be no
(happiness) throughout the seven births.
Think on the men
whom scornful mind hath brought to nought,
overwhelms thy wildered thought.
Let (a king) think of
those who have been ruined by neglect, when his mind is elated with
'Tis easy what thou
hast in mind to gain,
If what thou hast in
mind thy mind retain.
It is easy for (one) to
obtain whatever he may think of, if he can again think of it.
2.1.17. The Right
Search out, to no
one favour show; with heart that justice loves
Consult, then act;
this is the rule that right approves.
To examine into
(the crimes which may be committed), to show no favour (to any one),
to desire to act with impartiality towards all, and to inflict (such
punishments) as may be wisely resolved on, constitute rectitude.
All earth looks up
to heav'n whence raindrops fall;
All subjects look to
king that ruleth all.
When there is rain, the
living creation thrives; and so when the king rules justly, his
Learning and virtue
of the sages spring, From all-controlling sceptre of the king.
The sceptre of
the king is the firm support of the Vedas of the Brahmin, and of all
virtues therein described.
Whose heart embraces
subjects all, lord over mighty land
Who rules, the world
his feet embracing stands.
The world will
constantly embrace the feet of the great king who rules over his
subjects with love.
Where king, who
righteous laws regards, the sceptre wields,
There fall the
showers, there rich abundance crowns the fields.
plentiful crops will ever dwell together in the country of the king
who sways his sceptre with justice.
Not lance gives
kings the victory,
But sceptre swayed
It is not the javelin
that gives victory, but the king's sceptre, if it do no injustice.
The king all the
whole realm of earth protects;
And justice guards
the king who right respects.
The king defends the
whole world; and justice, when administered without defect, defends
Hard of access,
nought searching out, with partial hand
The king who rules,
shall sink and perish from the land.
The king who
gives not facile audience (to those who approach him), and who does
not examine and pass judgment (on their complaints), will perish in
Abroad to guard, at
home to punish, brings No just reproach; 'tis work assigned to
In guarding his
subjects (against injury from others), and in preserving them
himself; to punish crime is not a fault in a king, but a duty.
By punishment of
death the cruel to restrain,
Is as when farmer
frees from weeds the tender grain.
For a king to punish
criminals with death, is like pulling up the weeds in the green
The Cruel Sceptre
Than one who plies
the murderer's trade, more cruel is the king
Who all injustice
works, his subjects harassing.
The king who
gives himself up to oppression and acts unjustly (towards his
subjects) is more cruel than the man who leads the life of a
As 'Give' the robber
cries with lance uplift,
So kings with
sceptred hand implore a gift.
The request (for
money) of him who holds the sceptre is like the word of a highway
robber who stands with a weapon in hand and says "give up your
Who makes no daily
search for wrongs, nor justly rules, that king
Doth day by day his
realm to ruin bring.
The country of
the king who does not daily examine into the wrongs done and
distribute justice, will daily fall to ruin.
Whose rod from right
deflects, who counsel doth refuse,
At once his wealth
and people utterly shall lose.
The king, who,
without reflecting (on its evil consequences), perverts justice,
will lose at once both his wealth and his subjects.
His people's tears
of sorrow past endurance, are not they Sharp instruments to wear the
monarch's wealth away?
Will not the
tears, shed by a people who cannot endure the oppression which they
sufer (from their king), become a saw to waste away his wealth ?
To rulers' rule
stability is sceptre right;
When this is not,
quenched is the rulers' light.
government gives permanence to (the fame of) kings; without that
their fame will have no endurance.
As lack of rain to
thirsty lands beneath,
Is lack of grace in
kings to all that breathe.
As is the world without
rain, so live a people whose king is without kindness.
To poverty it adds a
To live beneath the
sway of unjust king.
more sorrow than poverty, to those who live under the sceptre of a
king without justice.
Where king from
right deflecting, makes unrighteous gain,
The seasons change,
the clouds pour down no rain.
If the king acts
contrary to justice, rain will become unseasonable, and the heavens
will withhold their showers.
guardeth not, udder of kine grows dry,
And Brahmans' sacred
lore will all forgotten lie.
If the guardian
(of the country) neglects to guard it, the produce of the cows will
fail, and the men of six duties viz., the Brahmins will forget the
2.1.19. Absence of
investigation made in due degree,
So as to stay
advance of crime, a king is he.
He is a king who
having equitably examined (any injustice which has been brought to
his notice), suitably punishes it, so that it may not be again
For length of days
with still increasing joys on Heav'n who call,
Should raise the rod
with brow severe, but let it gently fall.
Let the king, who
desires that his prosperity may long remain, commence his
preliminary enquires with strictness, and then punish with mildness.
Where subjects dread
of cruel wrongs endure,
Ruin to unjust king
is swift and sure.
cruel-sceptred king, who acts so as to put his subjects in fear,
will certainly and quickly come to ruin.
'Ah! cruel is our
king', where subjects sadly say, His age shall dwindle, swift his
joy of life decay.
The king who is spoken
of as cruel will quickly perish; his life becoming shortened.
Whom subjects scarce
may see, of harsh forbidding countenance;
His ample wealth
shall waste, blasted by demon's glance.
The great wealth
of him who is dificult of access and possesses a sternness of
countenance, is like that which has been obtained by a devil.
The tyrant, harsh in
speach and hard of eye,
His ample joy, swift
fading, soon shall die.
wealth of the king whose words are harsh and whose looks are void of
kindness, will instantly perish instead of abiding long, with him.
Harsh words and
punishments severe beyond the right,
Are file that wears
away the monarch's conquering might.
Severe words and
excessive punishments will be a file to waste away a king's power
for destroying (his enemies).
Who leaves the work
to those around, and thinks of it no more;
If he in wrathful
mood reprove, his prosperous days are o'er!
The prosperity of
that king will waste away, who without reflecting (on his afairs
himself), commits them to his ministers, and (when a failure occurs)
gives way to anger, and rages against them.
Who builds no fort
whence he may foe defy,
In time of war shall
fear and swiftly die.
The king who has
not provided himself with a place of defence, will in times of war
be seized with fear and quickly perish.
Tyrants with fools
their counsels share:
Earth can no heavier
The earth bears
up no greater burden than ignorant men whom a cruel sceptre attaches
(as the ministers of its evil deeds).
benignity, that grace exceeding great, resides
In kingly souls,
world in happy state abides.
The world exists
through that greatest ornament (of princes), a gracious demeanour.
The world goes on its
wonted way, since grace benign is there; All other men are
burthen for the earth to bear.
The prosperity of the
world springs from the kindliness, the existence of those
who have no (kindliness) is a burden to the earth.
Where not accordant
with the song, what use of sounding chords?
What gain of eye
that no benignant light affords?
Of what avail is
a song if it be inconsistent with harmony ? what is the use of eyes
which possess no kindliness.
The seeming eye of
face gives no expressive light,
When not with duly
meted kindness bright.
to be in the face, what good do they do, those eyes in which is no
well-regulated kindness ?
Benignity is eyes'
Without it eyes are
wounds disfiguring face.
Kind looks are
the ornaments of the eyes; without these they will be considered (by
the wise) to be merely two sores.
Whose eyes 'neath
brow infixed diffuse no ray
Of grace; like tree
in earth infixed are they.
They resemble the trees
of the earth, who although they have eyes, never look kindly (on
Eyeless are they
whose eyes with no benignant lustre shine;
Who've eyes can
never lack the light of grace benign.
Men without kind
looks are men without eyes; those who (really) have eyes are also
not devoid of kind looks.
Who can benignant
smile, yet leave no work undone;
By them as very own
may all the earth be won.
The world is
theirs (kings) who are able to show kindness, without injury to
their afairs, (administration of justice).
To smile on those that
vex, with kindly face, Enduring long, is most excelling
Patiently to bear with,
and show kindness to those who grieve us, is the most
excellent of all dispositions.
They drink with
smiling grace, though poison interfused they see,
Who seek the praise
of all-esteemed courtesy.
Those who desire
(to cultivate that degree of) urbanity which all shall love, even
after swallowing the poison served to them by their friends, will be
friendly with them.
These two: the code
renowned and spies,
In these let king
confide as eyes.
Let a king consider as
his eyes these two things, a spy and a book (of laws) universally
Each day, of every subject every
'Tis duty of the king
to learn with speed.
It is the duty of a
king to know quickly (by a spy) what all happens, daily, amongst all
By spies who spies,
not weighing things they bring,
Nothing can victory
give to that unwary king.
There is no way
for a king to obtain conquests, who knows not the advantage of
discoveries made by a spy.
His officers, his
friends, his enemies,
All these who watch
are trusty spies.
He is a spy who
watches all men, to wit, those who are in the king's employment, his
relatives, and his enemies.
Of unsuspected mien
and all-unfearing eyes,
Who let no secret
out, are trusty spies.
A spy is one who
is able to assume an appearance which may create no suspicion (in
the minds of others), who fears no man's face, and who never reveals
As monk or devotee,
through every hindrance making way,
A spy, whate'er men
do, must watchful mind display.
He is a spy who,
assuming the appearance of an ascetic, goes into (whatever place he
wishes), examines into (all, that is needful), and never discovers
himself, whatever may be done to him.
A spy must search
each hidden matter out,
And full report must
render, free from doubt.
A spy is one who
is able to discover what is hidden and who retains no doubt
concerning what he has known.
Spying by spies, the
things they tell
To test by other
spies is well.
Let not a king
receive the information which a spy has discovered and made known to
him, until he has examined it by another spy.
One spy must not
another see: contrive it so;
And things by three
confirmed as truth you know.
Let a king employ
spies so that one may have no knowledge of the other; and when the
information of three agrees together, let him receive it.
Reward not trusty
spy in others' sight,
Or all the mystery
will come to light.
Let not a king
publicly confer on a spy any marks of his favour; if he does, he
will divulge his own secret.
'Tis energy gives
men o'er that they own a true control;
They nothing own who
own not energy of soul.
Energy makes out
the man of property; as for those who are destitute of it, do they
(really) possess what they possess ?
The wealth of mind man
owns a real worth imparts,
Material wealth man owns
endures not, utterly departs.
The possession of
(energy of) mind is true property; the possession of wealth
passes away and abides not.
'Lost is our
wealth,' they utter not this cry distressed, The men of firm
concentred energy of soul possessed.
They who are
possessed of enduring energy will not trouble themselves, saying,
"we have lost our property."
The man of energy of
Good fortune seeks
him out and comes a friend to dwell.
Wealth will find its own way to the man of unfailing energy.
With rising flood
the rising lotus flower its stem unwinds;
The dignity of men
is measured by their minds.
The stalks of
water-flowers are proportionate to the depth of water; so is men's
greatness proportionate to their minds.
Whate'er you ponder,
let your aim be loftly still,
Fate cannot hinder
always, thwart you as it will.
In all that a
king thinks of, let him think of his greatness; and if it should be
thrust from him (by fate), it will have the nature of not being
thrust from him.
The men of lofty
mind quail not in ruin's fateful hour,
The elephant retains
his dignity mind arrows' deadly shower.
The strong minded
will not faint, even when all is lost; the elephant stands firm,
even when wounded by a shower of arrows.
The soulless man can
Th' ennobling sense
of power with men.
Those who have no
(greatness of) mind, will not acquire the joy of saying in the
world, "we have excercised liaberality ".
Huge bulk of
elephant with pointed tusk all armed,
When tiger threatens
shrinks away alarmed!
Although the elephant
has a large body, and a sharp tusk, yet it fears the attack of the
Firmness of soul in man
is real excellance;
Others are trees,
their human form a mere pretence.
Energy is mental
wealth; those men who are destitute of it are only trees in the form
Of household dignity
the lustre beaming bright,
Flickers and dies
when sluggish foulness dims its light.
By the darkness, of
idleness, the indestructible lamp of family (rank) will be
Let indolence, the
death of effort, die,
If you'd uphold your
Let those, who desire
that their family may be illustrious, put away all idleness from
indolence within his breast, the silly elf!
The house from which
he springs shall perish ere himself.
The (lustre of
the) family of the ignorant man, who acts under the influence of
destructive laziness will perish, even before he is dead.
His family decays,
and faults unheeded thrive,
Who, sunk in sloth,
for noble objects doth not strive.
(greatness) will be destroyed, and faults will increase, in those
men who give way to laziness, and put forth no dignified exertions.
sloth, and sleep: these four
Are pleasure-boat to
bear the doomed to ruin's shore.
forgetfulness, idleness, and sleep, these four things, form the
vessel which is desired by those destined to destruction.
Though lords of earth
unearned possessions gain,
The slothful ones no
yield of good obtain.
It is a rare
thing for the idle, even when possessed of the riches of kings who
ruled over the whole earth, to derive any great benefit from it.
Who hug their sloth,
nor noble works attempt, Shall bear reproofs and words of just
Those who through
idleness, and do not engage themselves in dignified exertion, will
subject themselves to rebukes and reproaches.
If sloth a dwelling
find mid noble family,
Bondsmen to them
that hate them shall they be.
If idleness take up its
abode in a king of high birth, it will make him a slave of his
Who changes slothful
Himself from all
that household rule depraves.
When a man puts
away idleness, the reproach which has come upon himself and his
family will disappear.
The king whose life
from sluggishness is rid,
Shall rule o'er all
by foot of mighty god bestrid.
The king who
never gives way to idleness will obtain entire possession of (the
whole earth) passed over by him who measured (the worlds) with His
2.1.24. Manly Effort
Say not, 'Tis hard', in
weak, desponding hour,
For strenuous effort
gives prevailing power.
Yield not to the
feebleness which says, "this is too dificult to be done"; labour
will give the greatness (of mind)
which is necessary (to do it).
In action be thou,
'ware of act's defeat;
The world leaves
those who work leave incomplete!
Take care not to
give up exertion in the midst of a work; the world will abandon
those who abandon their unfinished work.
In strenuous effort
The power of helping
others: noble pride!
The lustre of
munificence will dwell only with the dignity of laboriousness or
Beneficent intent in
men by whom no strenuous work is wrought,
Like battle-axe in
sexless being's hand availeth nought.
The liberality of
him, who does not labour, will fail, like the manliness of a
hermaphrodite, who has a sword in its hand.
delighteth not in pleasure, but in action finds delight,
He wipes away his
kinsmen's grief and stands the pillar of their might.
He who desires
not pleasure, but desires labour, will be a pillar to sustain his
relations, wiping away their sorrows.
Effort brings fortune's
Its absence brings
Labour will produce
wealth; idleness will bring poverty.
In sluggishness is
seen misfortune's lurid form, the wise declare;
Where man unslothful
toils, she of the lotus flower is there!
They say that the
black Mudevi (the goddess of adversity) dwells with laziness, and
the Latchmi (the goddess of prosperity) dwells with the labour of
'Tis no reproach
unpropitious fate should ban;
But not to do man's
work is foul disgrace to man!
Adverse fate is
no disgrace to any one; to be without exertion and without knowing
what should be known, is disgrace.
should make your labour vain;
Effort its labour's
sure reward will gain.
Although it be
said that, through fate, it cannot be attained, yet labour, with
bodily exertion, will yield its reward.
Who strive with
undismayed, unfaltering mind,
At length shall
leave opposing fate behind.
They who labour on,
without fear and without fainting will see even fate (put) behind
2.1.25. Hopefulness in
Smile, with patient,
hopeful heart, in troublous hour;
Meet and so vanquish
grief; nothing hath equal power.
If troubles come,
laugh; there is nothing like that, to press upon and drive away
Though sorrow, like a
flood, comes rolling on,
When wise men's mind
regards it,- it is gone.
A flood of
troubles will be overcome by the (courageous) thought which the
minds of the wise will entertain, even in sorrow.
Who griefs confront
with meek, ungrieving heart,
From them griefs,
put to grief, depart.
They give sorrow to
sorrow, who in sorrow do not suffer sorrow.
struggle on through each obstructed way; From such an one will
troubles, troubled, roll away.
vanish (i.e., will be troubled) before the man who (struggles
against dificulties) as a buffalo (drawing a cart) through deep
When griefs press
on, but fail to crush the patient heart,
defeated, put to grief, depart.
The troubles of
that man will be troubled (and disappear) who, however thickly they
may come upon him, does not abandon (his purpose).
Who boasted not of
wealth, nor gave it all their heart,
Will not bemoan the
loss, when prosperous days depart.
Will those men
ever cry out in sorrow, "we are destitute" who, (in their
prosperity), give not way to (undue desire) to keep their wealth.
'Man's frame is
sorrow's target', the noble mind reflects,
Nor meets with
troubled mind the sorrows it expects.
The great will not
regard trouble as trouble, knowing that the body is the butt of
He seeks not joy, to
sorrow man is born, he knows;
Such man will walk
unharmed by touch of human woes.
That man never
experiences sorrow, who does not seek for pleasure, and who
considers distress to be natural (to man).
Mid joys he yields
not heart to joys' control. Mid sorrows, sorrow cannot touch his
He does not suffer
sorrow, in sorrow who does not look for pleasure in pleasure.
Who pain as pleasure
takes, he shall acquire
The bliss to which
his foes in vain aspire.
which even his enemies will esteem, will be gained by him, who
regards pain as pleasure.
2.2 Ministers of
2.2.1. The Office
of Minister of state
A minister is he who
grasps, with wisdom large,
Means, time, work's
mode, and functions rare he must discharge.
The minister is
one who can make an excellent choice of means, time, manner of
execution, and the difficult undertaking (itself).
A minister must
greatness own of guardian power, determined mind, Learn'd wisdom,
manly effort with the former five combined.
The minister is
one who in addition to the aforesaid five things excels in the
possession of firmness, protection of subjects, clearness by
learning, and perseverance.
A minister is he
whose power can foes divide,
Attach more firmly
friends, of severed ones can heal the breaches wide.
The minister is
one who can efect discord (among foes), maintain the good-will of
his friends and restore to friendship those who have seceded (from
A minister has power
to see the methods help afford,
To ponder long, then
utter calm conclusive word.
The minister is
one who is able to comprehend (the whole nature of an undertaking),
execute it in the best manner possible, and ofer assuring advice (in
time of necessity).
The man who virtue
knows, has use of wise and pleasant words.
With plans for every
season apt, in counsel aid affords.
He is the best
helper (of the king) who understanding the duties, of the latter, is
by his special learning, able to tender the fullest advice, and at
all times conversant with the best method (of performing actions).
When native subtilty
combines with sound scholastic lore,
surpassing all, which nothing stands before.
(contrivances) are there so acute as to resist those who possess
natural acuteness in addition to learning ?.
Though knowing all
that books can teach, 'tis truest tact
To follow common
sense of men in act.
Though you are
acquainted with the (theoretical) methods (of performing an act),
understand the ways of the world and act accordingly.
'Tis duty of the man
in place aloud to say
The very truth,
though unwise king may cast his words away.
Although the king be
utterly ignorant, it is the duty of the minister to give (him) sound
A minister who by
king's side plots evil things
Worse woes than
countless foemen brings.
Far better are seventy
crores of enemies (for a king) than a minister at his side who
intends (his) ruin.
For gain of end
desired just counsel nought avails
To minister, when
tact in execution fails.
who are destitute of (executive) ability will fail to carry out
their projects, although they may have contrived aright.
2.2.2. Power in Speech
A tongue that
rightly speaks the right is greatest gain,
It stands alone
midst goodly things that men obtain.
The possession of
that goodness which is called the goodness of speech is (even to
others) better than any other goodness.
Since gain and loss in
life on speech depend, From careless slip in speech thyself
Since (both) wealth and
evil result from (their)speech, ministers should most
carefully guard themselves against faultiness therein.
'Tis speech that
spell-bound holds the listening ear,
While those who have
not heard desire to hear.
speech is that which seeks (to express) elements as bind his friends
(to himself) and is so delivered as to make even his enemies desire
Speak words adapted
well to various hearers' state;
No higher virtue
lives, no gain more surely great.
qualities (of your hearers) and (then) make your speech; for
superior to it, there is neither virtue nor wealth.
Speak out your
speech, when once 'tis past dispute
That none can utter
speech that shall your speech refute.
Deliver your speech,
after assuring yourself that no counter speech can defeat your own.
hearer's ear, of others' words to seize the sense,
Is method wise of
men of spotless excellence.
It is the opinion
of those who are free from defects in diplomacy that the minister
should speak so as to make his hearers desire (to hear more) and
grasp the meaning of what he hears himself.
Mighty in word, of
unforgetful mind, of fearless speech,
'Tis hard for
hostile power such man to overreach.
It is impossible
for any one to conquer him by intrique who possesses power of
speech, and is neither faulty nor timid.
listening world will gather round,
When men of mighty
speech the weighty theme propound.
If there be those
who can speak on various subjects in their proper order and in a
pleasing manner, the world would readily accept them.
Who have not skill
ten faultless words to utter plain,
Their tongues will
itch with thousand words man's ears to pain.
They will desire to
utter many words, who do not know how to speak a few faultless ones.
flower in blooming garland bound
Are men who can't
their lore acquired to other's ears expound.
Those who are
unable to set forth their acquirements (before others) are like
flowers blossoming in a cluster and yet without fragrance.
2.2.3. Purity in Action
The good external
help confers is worldly gain;
By action good men
every needed gift obtain.
The efficacy of support
will yield (only) wealth; (but) the efficacy of action will yield
all that is desired.
From action evermore
Of glory and of good
that yields no gain.
Ministers should at all
times avoid acts which, in addition to fame, yield no benefit (for
Who tell themselves
that nobler things shall yet be won
All deeds that dim
the light of glory must they shun.
Those who say,
"we will become (better)" should avoid the performance of acts that
would destroy (their fame).
press, no shameful deed they do,
Whose eyes the
ever-during vision view.
Those who have
infallible judgement though threatened with peril will not do acts
which have brought disgrace (on former ministers).
Do nought that soul
repenting must deplore,
If thou hast sinned,
'tis well if thou dost sin no more.
Let a minister
never do acts of which he would have to grieve saying, "what is this
I have done"; (but) should he do (them), it were good that he
Though her that bore
thee hung'ring thou behold, no deed
Do thou, that men of
perfect soul have crime decreed.
Though a minister
may see his mother starve; let him do not act which the wise would
(treat with contempt).
Than store of wealth
guilt-laden souls obtain, The sorest poverty of perfect soul is
excellent is the extreme poverty of the wise than wealth obtained by
heaping up of sinful deeds.
To those who hate
reproof and do forbidden thing.
What prospers now,
in after days shall anguish bring.
The actions of
those, who have not desisted from doing deeds forbidden (by the
great), will, even if they succeed, cause them sorrow.
through tears with tears shall go;
From loss good deeds
entail harvests of blessings grow.
All that has been
obtained with tears (to the victim) will depart with tears (to
himself); but what has been by fair means; though with loss at
first, will afterwards yield fruit.
In pot of clay unburnt
he water pours and would retain,
Who seeks by wrong
the realm in wealth and safety to maintain.
(For a minister)
to protect (his king) with wealth obtained by foul means is like
preserving a vessel of wet clay by filling it with water.
2.2.4. Power in Action
What men call 'power in
action' know for 'power of mind'
Externe to man all
other aids you find.
Firmness in action is
(simply) one's firmness of mind; all other (abilities) are not of
'Each hindrance shun',
'unyielding onward press, If obstacle be there,'
These two define
your way, so those that search out truth declare.
Not to perform a
ruinous act, and not to be discouraged by the ruinous termination of
an act, are the two maxims which, the wise say, from the principles
of those who have investigated the
Man's fitting work
is known but by success achieved;
In midst the plan
revealed brings ruin ne'er to be retrieved.
So to perform an
act as to publish it (only) at its termination is (true) manliness;
for to announce it beforehand, will cause irremediable sorrow.
Easy to every man
the speech that shows the way;
Hard thing to shape
one's life by words they say!
To say (how an
act is to be performed) is (indeed) easy for any one; but far
dificult it is to do according to what has been said.
The power in act of
men renowned and great,
With king acceptance
finds and fame through all the state.
The firmness in
action of those who have become great by the excellence (of their
counsel) will, by attaining its fulfilment in the person of the
king, be esteemed (by all).
Whate'er men think,
ev'n as they think, may men obtain,
If those who think
can steadfastness of will retain.
If those who have
planned (an undertaking) possess firmness (in executing it) they
will obtain what they have desired even as they have desired it.
Despise not men of
modest bearing; Look not at form, but what men are:
For some there live,
high functions sharing, Like linch-pin of the mighty car!
Let none be
despised for (their) size; (for) the world has those who resemble
the linch-pin of the big rolling car.
What clearly eye
discerns as right, with steadfast will,
unslumbering, that should man fulfil.
An act that has been
firmly resolved on must be as firmly carried out without delay.
Though toil and
trouble face thee, firm resolve hold fast,
And do the deeds
that pleasure yield at last.
Though it should
cause increasing sorrow (at the outset), do with firmness the act
that yield bliss (in the end).
The world desires
not men of every power possessed,
Who power in act
desire not,- crown of all the rest.
The great will
not esteem those who esteem not firmness of action, whatever other
abilities the latter may possess.
2.2.5. The Envoy
Benevolence high birth,
the courtesy kings love:‑
These qualities the
envoy of a king approve.
of an ambassador are affection (for his relations) a fitting birth,
and the possession of attributes pleasing to royalty.
Love, knowledge, power
of chosen words, three things,
Should he possess
who speaks the words of kings.
Love (to his
sovereign), knowledge (of his afairs), and a discriminating power of
speech (before other sovereigns) are the three sine qua non
qualifications of an ambassador.
Mighty in lore
amongst the learned must he be,
kings who speaks the words of victory.
To be powerful in
politics among those who are learned (in ethics) is the character of
him who speaks to lance-bearing kings on matters of triumph (to his
Sense, goodly grace,
and knowledge exquisite.
Who hath these three
for envoy's task is fit.
He may go on a
mission (to foreign rulers) who has combined in him all these three.
viz., (natural) sense, an attractive bearing and well-tried
In terms concise,
avoiding wrathful speech, who utters pleasant word,
An envoy he who
gains advantage for his lord.
He is an
ambassador who (in the presence of foreign rulers) speaks briefly,
avoids harshness, talks so as to make them smile, and thus brings
good (to his own sovereign).
An envoy meet is he,
well-learned, of fearless eye
Who speaks right
home, prepared for each emergency.
He is an
ambassador who having studied (politics) talks impressively, is not
afraid of angry looks, and knows (to employ) the art suited to the
He is the best who
knows what's due, the time considered well,
The place selects,
then ponders long ere he his errand tell.
He is chief
(among ambassadors) who understands the proper decorum (before
foreign princes), seeks the (proper) occasion, knows the (most
suitable) place, and delivers his message after (due) consideration.
soul determined, truthfulness.
Who rightly speaks
his message must these marks possess.
qualifications of him who faithfully delivers his (sovereign's)
message are purity, the support (of foreign ministers), and
boldness, with truthfulness in addition to the (aforesaid) three.
His faltering lips
must utter no unworthy thing,
Who stands, with
steady eye, to speak the mandates of his king.
He alone is fit
to communicate (his sovereign's) reply, who possesses the firmness
not to utter even inadvertently what may reflect discredit (on the
Death to the
faithful one his embassy may bring;
To envoy gains
assured advantage for his king.
He is the
ambassador who fearlessly seeks his sovereign's good though it
should cost him his life (to deliver his message).
2.2.6. Conduct in the
Presence of the King
Who warm them at the
fire draw not too near, nor keep too much aloof;
Thus let them act who
dwell beneath of warlike kings the palace-roof.
serve under fickle-minded monarchs should, like those who warm
themselves at the fire, be neither (too) far, nor (too) near.
To those who prize
not state that kings are wont to prize,
The king himself
abundant wealth supplies.
For ministers not
to cover the things desired by their kings will through the kings
themselves yield them everlasting wealth.
Who would walk warily, let
him of greater faults beware; To clear suspicions once
aroused is an achievement rare.
Ministers who would save themselves should avoid (the
commission of) serious
errors for if the
king's suspicion is once roused, no one can remove it.
All whispered words
and interchange of smiles repress,
In presence of the
men who kingly power possess.
While in the presence
of the sovereign, ministers should neither whisper to nor smile at
Seek not, ask not,
the secret of the king to hear;
But if he lets the
matter forth, give ear!
(When the king is
engaged) in secret counsel (with others), ministers should neither
over-hear anything whatever nor pry into it with inquisitive
questions, but (wait to) listen when it is divulged (by the king
Knowing the signs,
waiting for fitting time, with courteous care,
displeasing, needful things, declare.
(king's disposition and seeking the right time, (the minister)
should in a pleasing manner suggest things such as are desirable and
things, but never utter idle word;
Not though by
monarch's ears with pleasure heard.
(always) give agreeable advice but on no occasion recommend useless
actions, though requested (to do so).
Say not, 'He's
young, my kinsman,' despising thus your king;
But reverence the
glory kingly state doth bring.
behave in accordance with the (Divine) light in the person of kings
and not despise them saying, "He is our junior (in age) and
connected with our family!".
'We've gained his
grace, boots nought what graceless acts we do', So deem not sages
who the changeless vision view.
judgement is firm will not do what is disagreeable (to the
sovereign) saying (within themselves) "We are esteemed by the king
Who think 'We're
ancient friends' and do unseemly things;
To these familiarity
sure ruin brings.
claim with which a minister does unbecoming acts because of his
(long) familiarity (with the king) will ensure his ruin.
2.2.7. The Knowledge of
Who knows the sign,
and reads unuttered thought, the gem is he,
Of earth round
traversed by the changeless sea.
The minister who
by looking (at the king) understands his mind without being told (of
it), will be a perpetual ornament to the world which is surrounded
by a never-drying sea.
Undoubting, who the
minds of men can scan,
As deity regard that
He is to be esteemed a
god who is able to ascertain without a doubt what is within (one's
Who by the sign the
signs interprets plain,
Give any member up
his aid to gain.
The king should
ever give whatever (is asked) of his belongings and secure him who,
by the indications (of his own mind) is able to read those of
Who reads what's
shown by signs, though words unspoken be,
In form may seem as
other men, in function nobler far is he.
understand one's thoughts without being informed (thereof) and those
who do not, may (indeed) resemble one another bodily; still are they
By sign who knows
not sings to comprehend, what gain,
'Mid all his
members, from his eyes does he obtain?
Of what use are
the eyes amongst one's members, if they cannot by their own
indications dive those of another ?.
As forms around in
crystal mirrored clear we find,
The face will show
what's throbbing in the mind.
As the mirror reflects
what is near so does the face show what is uppermost in the mind.
countenance hath aught more prescient skill?
Rejoice or burn with
rage, 'tis the first herald still!
Is there anything
so full of knowledge as the face ? (No.) it precedes the mind,
whether (the latter is) pleased or vexed.
To see the face is
quite enough, in presence brought,
When men can look
within and know the lurking thought.
If the king gets
those who by looking into his mind can understand (and remove) what
has occurred (to him) it is enough that he stand looking at their
The eye speaks out
the hate or friendly soul of man;
To those who know
the eye's swift varying moods to scan.
If a king gets
ministers who can read the movements of the eye, the eyes (of
foreign kings) will (themselves) reveal (to him) their hatred or
The men of keen
discerning soul no other test apply
(When you their
secret ask) than man's revealing eye.
of those (ministers) who say "we are acute" will on inquiry be found
to be their (own) eyes and nothing else.
2.2.8. The Knowledge of
the Council Chamber
Men pure in heart,
who know of words the varied force,
Should to their
audience known adapt their well-arranged discourse.
Let the pure who
know the arrangement of words speak with deliberation after
ascertaining (the nature of) the court (then assembled).
Good men to whom the
arts of eloquence are known,
Should seek occasion
meet, and say what well they've made their own.
Let the good who
know the uses of words speak with a clear knowledge after
ascertaining the time (suited to the court).
councils, who essays to speak.
Knows not the way of
suasive words,- and all is weak.
undertake to speak without knowing the (nature of the) court are
ignorant of the quality of words as well as devoid of the power (of
Before the bright
ones shine as doth the light! Before the dull ones be as purest
be lights in the assembly of the enlightned, but assume the pure
whiteness of mortar (ignorance) in that of fools.
Midst all good
things the best is modest grace,
That speaks not
first before the elders' face.
The modesty by
which one does not rush forward and speak in (an assembly of)
superiors is the best among all (one's) good qualities.
As in the way one
tottering falls, is slip before
The men whose minds
are filled with varied lore.
(For a minister)
to blunder in the presence of those who have acquired a vast store
of learning and know (the value thereof) is like a good man
stumbling (and falling away) from the path (of virtue).
The learning of the
learned sage shines bright
To those whose
faultless skill can value it aright.
The learning of
those who have read and understood (much) will shine in the assembly
of those who faultlessly examine (the nature of) words.
To speak where
understanding hearers you obtain,
Is sprinkling water
on the fields of growing grain!
those who have the ability to understand (for themselves) is like
watering a bed of plants that are growing (of themselves).
In councils of the
good, who speak good things with penetrating power,
In councils of the
mean, let them say nought, e'en in oblivious hour.
Those who are
able to speak good things impressively in an assembly of the good
should not even forgetfully speak them in that of the low
Ambrosia in the
sewer spilt, is word
Spoken in presence
of the alien herd.
To utter (a good
word) in the assembly of those who are of inferior rank is like
dropping nectar on the ground.
2.2.9. Not to dread the
Men, pure in heart,
who know of words the varied force,
The mighty council's
moods discern, nor fail in their discourse.
The pure who know
the class ification of words having first ascertained the nature (of
the court) will not (through fear) falter in their speech before the
Who what they've
learned, in penetrating words heve learned to say,
Before the learn'd
among the learn'd most learn'd are they.
Those who can
agreeably set forth their acquirements before the learned will be
regarded as the most learned among the learned.
death in face of foe will hold their ground;
Who speak undaunted
in the council hall are rarely found.
Many indeed may
(fearlessly) die in the presence of (their) foes; (but) few are
those who are fearless in the assembly (of the learned).
What you have
learned, in penetrating words speak out before
The learn'd; but
learn what men more learn'd can teach you more.
should agreeably set forth their acquirements before the learned and
acquire more (know ledge) from their superiors (in learning).
By rule, to
dialectic art your mind apply,
That in the council
fearless you may make an apt reply.
In order to reply
fearlessly before a foreign court, (ministers) should learn logic
according to the rules (of grammar).
To those who lack
the hero's eye what can the sword avail?
Or science what, to
those before the council keen who quail?
What have they to
do with a sword who are not valiant, or they with learning who are
afraid of an intelligent assembly ?
As shining sword
before the foe which 'sexless being' bears,
Is science learned
by him the council's face who fears.
The learning of
him who is diffident before an assembly is like the shining sword of
an hermaphrodite in the presence of his foes.
Though many things
they've learned, yet useless are they all,
To man who cannot
well and strongly speak in council hall.
Those who cannot
agreeably speak good things before a good assembly are indeed
unprofitable persons inspite of all their various acquirements.
Who, though they've
learned, before the council of the good men quake,
Than men unlearn'd a
lower place must take.
They who, though
they have learned and understood, are yet afraid of the assembly of
the good, are said to be inferior (even) to the illiterate.
Who what they've learned, in
penetrating words know not to say, The council fearing, though they
live, as dead are they.
Those who through fear of the
assembly are unable to set forth theirlearning in an interesting
manner, though alive, are yet like the dead.
2.3 The Essentials of a State
2.3.1 The Land
Where spreads fertility unfailing,
where resides a band,
Of virtuous men, and those of
ample wealth, call that a 'land'
A kingdom is that
in which (those who carry on) a complete cultivation, virtuous
persons, and merchants with inexhaustible wealth, dwell together.
That is a 'land'
which men desire for wealth's abundant share,
increase, where calamities are rare.
A kingdom is that
which is desire for its immense wealth, and which grows greatly in
prosperity, being free from destructive causes.
When burthens press,
it bears; Yet, With unfailing hand
To king due tribute
pays: that is the 'land'
A kingdom is that
which can bear any burden that may be pressed on it (from adjoining
kingdoms) and (yet) pay the full tribute to its sovereign.
That is a 'land'
whose peaceful annals know,
Nor famine fierce,
nor wasting plague, nor ravage of the foe.
A kingdom is that
which continues to be free from excessive starvation, irremediable
epidemics, and destructive foes.
From factions free,
and desolating civil strife, and band
Of lurking murderers
that king afflict, that is the 'land'.
A kingdom is that
which is without various (irregular) associations, destructive
internal enemies, and murderous savages who (sometimes) harass the
Chief of all lands
is that, where nought disturbs its peace;
Or, if invaders
come, still yields its rich increase.
The learned say
that the best kingdom is that which knows no evil (from its foes),
and, if injured (at all), sufers no diminution in its fruitfulness.
Waters from rains
and springs, a mountain near, and waters thence;
These make a land,
with fortress' sure defence.
of a kingdom are the two waters (from above and below), well
situated hills and an undestructible fort.
A country's jewels
are these five: unfailing health, Fertility, and joy, a sure
defence, and wealth.
epidemics, wealth, produce, happiness and protection (to subjects);
these five, the learned, say, are the ornaments of a kingdom.
That is a land that
yields increase unsought,
That is no land
whose gifts with toil are bought.
The learned say
that those are kingdom whose wealth is not laboured for, and those
not, whose wealth is only obtained through labour.
Though blest with all these varied
A land gains nought that is not
with its king at peace.
Although in possession of all
the above mentioned excellences, these are indeed of no use to a
country, in the absence of harmony between the sovereign and the
2.3.2. The Fortification
A fort is wealth to
those who act against their foes;
Is wealth to them
who, fearing, guard themselves from woes.
A fort is an
object of importance to those who march (against their foes) as well
as to those who through fear (of pursuers) would seek it for
A fort is that which
owns fount of waters crystal clear,
An open space, a
hill, and shade of beauteous forest near.
A fort is that which
has everlasting water, plains, mountains and cool shady forests.
strength, difficult access:
Science declares a
fort must these possess.
The learned say
that a fortress is an enclosure having these four (qualities) viz.,
height, breadth, strength and inaccessibility.
A fort must need but
slight defence, yet ample be,
Defying all the
A fort is that
which has an extensive space within, but only small places to be
guarded, and such as can destroy the courage of besieging foes.
containing ample stores of food,
A fort for those
within, must be a warlike station good.
A fort is that
which cannot be captured, which abounds in suitable provisions, and
afords a position of easy defence to its inmates.
A fort, with all
munitions amply stored,
In time of need
should good reserves afford.
A fort is that
which has all (needful) things, and excellent heroes that can help
it against destruction (by foes).
A fort should be
impregnable to foes who gird it round,
Or aim there darts
from far, or mine beneath the ground.
A fort is that which
cannot be captured by blockading, assaulting, or undermining it.
Howe'er the circling
foe may strive access to win,
A fort should give
the victory to those who guard within.
That is a fort
whose inmates are able to overcome without losing their ground, even
abler men who have besieged it.
At outset of the
strife a fort should foes dismay;
And greatness gain
by deeds in every glorious day.
A fort is that
which derives excellence from the stratagems made (by its inmates)
to defeat their enemies in the battlefield.
castled walls may rise,
To craven souls no
fortress strength supplies.
Although a fort
may possess all (the above-said) excellence, it is, as it were
without these, if its inmates possess not the excellence of action.
2.3.3. Way of
Nothing exists save
wealth, that can
Change man of nought
to worthy man.
there is nothing that can change people of no importance into those
of (some) importance.
Those who have
nought all will despise; All raise the wealthy to the skies.
All despise the poor;
(but) all praise the rich.
Wealth, the lamp
unfailing, speeds to every land,
at its lord's command.
light of wealth goes into regions desired (by its owner) and
destroys the darkness (of enmity therein).
Their wealth, who
blameless means can use aright,
Is source of virtue
and of choice delight.
acquired with a knowledge of the proper means and without foul
practices will yield virtue and happiness.
Wealth gained by
loss of love and grace,
Let man cast off
from his embrace.
rather avoid than seek the accumulation of wealth which does not
flow in with mercy and love.
756 Wealth that falls
to him as heir, wealth from the kingdom's dues,
The spoils of
slaughtered foes; these are the royal revenues.
wealth acquired by taxes, and wealth (got) by conquest of foes are
(all) the wealth of the king.
'Tis love that
kindliness as offspring bears:
And wealth as
bounteous nurse the infant rears.
The child mercy which
is borne by love grows under the care of the rich nurse of wealth.
As one to view the
strife of elephants who takes his stand,
On hill he's
climbed, is he who works with money in his hand.
An undertaking of one
who has wealth in one's hands is like viewing an elephant-fight from
Make money! Foeman's
To lop away no
keener steel is known.
Accumulate wealth; it
will destroy the arrogance of (your) foes; there is no weapon
sharper than it.
Who plenteous store
of glorious wealth have gained,
By them the other
two are easily obtained.
To those who have
honestly acquired an abundance of riches, the other two, (virtue and
pleasure) are things easy (of acquisition).
2.3.4. The Excellence
of an Army
A conquering host,
complete in all its limbs, that fears no wound,
Mid treasures of the
king is chiefest found.
The army which is
complete in (its) parts and conquers without fear of wounds is the
chief wealth of the king.
In adverse hour, to
face undaunted might of conquering foe,
Is bravery that only
veteran host can show.
Ancient army can
alone have the valour which makes it stand by its king at the time
of defeat, fearless of wounds and unmindful of its reduced strength.
Though, like the
sea, the angry mice send forth their battle cry;
What then? The
dragon breathes upon them, and they die!
What if (a host of)
hostile rats roar like the sea ? They will perish at the mere breath
of the cobra.
That is a host, by
no defeats, by no desertions shamed,
For old hereditary
That indeed is an
army which has stood firm of old without sufering destruction or
deserting (to the enemy).
That is a 'host'
that joins its ranks, and mightily withstands, Though death with
sudden wrath should fall upon its bands.
That indeed is an
army which is capable of ofering a united resistance, even if Yama
advances against it with fury.
Valour with honour,
sure advance in glory's path, with confidence;
To warlike host
these four are sure defence.
following in the excellent-footsteps (of its predecessors) and
trust-worthiness; these four alone constitute the safeguard of an
A valiant army bears
the onslaught, onward goes,
Well taught with
marshalled ranks to meet their coming foes.
That is an army
which knowing the art of warding of an impending struggle, can bear
against the dust-van (of a hostile force).
Though not in war
offensive or defensive skilled;
An army gains
applause when well equipped and drilled.
of courage to fight and strength (to endure), an army may yet gain
renown by the splendour of its appearance.
clinging fear and poverty
Are not, the host
will gain the victory.
An army can triumph
(over its foes) if it is free from diminution; irremediable aversion
Though men abound, all ready for
No army is where no fit leaders
Though an army may contain a
large number of permanent soldiers, itcannot last if it has no
2.3.5. Military Spirit
Ye foes! stand not
before my lord! for many a one
Who did my lord
withstand, now stands in stone!
O my foes, stand
not before my leader; (for) many are those who did so but afterwards
stood (in the shape of) statues.
Who aims at
elephant, though dart should fail, has greater praise.
Than he who woodland
hare with winged arrow slays.
It is more
pleasant to hold the dart that has missed an elephant than that
which has hit hare in the forest.
Fierceness in hour
of strife heroic greatness shows;
Its edge is kindness
to our suffering foes.
The learned say
that fierceness (incontest with a foe) is indeed great valour; but
to become a benefactor in case of accident (to a foe) is the extreme
(limit) of that valour.
At elephant he hurls
the dart in hand; for weapon pressed, He laughs and plucks the
javelin from his wounded breast.
The hero who
after casting the lance in his hand on an elephant, comes (in search
of another) will pluck the one (that sticks) in his body and laugh
To hero fearless
must it not defeat appear,
If he but wink his
eye when foemen hurls his spear.
Is it not a
defeat to the valiant to wink and destroy their ferocious look when
a lance in cast at them (by their foe) ?
The heroes, counting
up their days, set down as vain
Each day when they
no glorious wound sustain.
The hero will reckon
among wasted days all those on which he had not received severe
Who seek for
world-wide fame, regardless of their life,
The glorious clasp
adorns, sign of heroic strife.
The fastening of
ankle-ring by those who disire a world-wide renown and not (the
safety of) their lives is like adorning (themselves).
Fearless they rush
where'er 'the tide of battle rolls';
The king's reproof
damps not the ardour of their eager souls.
The heroes who
are not afraid of losing their life in a contest will not cool their
ardour, even if the king prohibits (their fighting).
Who says they err,
and visits them scorn,
Who die and faithful
guard the vow they've sworn?
Who would reproach with
failure those who seal their oath with their death ?
If monarch's eyes
o'erflow with tears for hero slain,
Who would not beg
such boon of glorious death to gain?
If (heroes) can
so die as to fill with tears the eyes of their rulers, such a death
deserves to be obtained even by begging.
What so hard for men to
gain as friendship true?
What so sure defence
'gainst all that foe can do?
What things are
there so dificult to acquire as friendship ? What guards are there
so dificult to break through by the efforts (of one's foes) ?
Friendship with men
fulfilled of good Waxes like the crescent moon; Friendship with men
of foolish mood, Like the full orb, waneth soon.
The friendship of the
wise waxes like the new moon; (but) that of fools wanes like the
Learned scroll the
more you ponder, Sweeter grows the mental food;
So the heart by use
grows fonder, Bound in friendship with the good.
Like learning, the
friendship of the noble, the more it is cultivated, the more
delightful does it become.
Nor for laughter
only friendship all the pleasant day,
But for strokes of
sharp reproving, when from right you stray.
Friendship is to
be practised not for the purpose of laughing but for that of being
beforehand in giving one another sharp rebukes in case of
constant, not affection's token bind;
'Tis the unison of
feeling friends unites of kindred mind.
and holding frequent intercourse are not necessary (for friendship);
(mutual) understanding can alone create a claim for it.
Not the face's smile
of welcome shows the friend sincere,
But the heart's
rejoicing gladness when the friend is near.
The love that
dwells (merely in the smiles of the face is not friendship; (but)
that which dwells deep in the smiles of the heart is true
Friendship from ruin
saves, in way of virtue keeps;
In troublous time, it
weeps with him who weeps.
(True) friendship turns
aside from evil (ways) makes (him) walk in the (good) way,
and, in case of loss if shares his sorrow (with him).
As hand of him whose
vesture slips away,
Friendship at once
the coming grief will stay.
hastens to the rescue of the afflicted (as readily) as the hand of
one whose garment is loosened (before an assembly).
And where is
friendship's royal seat? In stable mind, Where friend in every time
of need support may find.
Friendship may be
said to be on its throne when it possesses the power of supporting
one at all times and under all circumstances, (in the practice or
virtue and wealth).
Mean is the
friendship that men blazon forth, 'He's thus to me' and 'such to him
may praise one another saying, "He is so intimate with us, and we so
much (with him)"; (still) such friendship will appear mean.
2.3.7. Investigation in
To make an untried
man your friend is ruin sure;
formed unbroken must endure.
As those who are
of a friendly nature will not forsake (a friend) after once loving
(him), there is no evil so great as contracting a friendship without
Alliance with the
man you have not proved and proved again,
In length of days
will give you mortal pain.
contracted by him who has not made repeated inquiry will in the end
grieve (him) to death.
defects, associations free
From blame: know
these, then let the man be friend to thee.
(with one) after ascertaining (his) character, birth, defects and
the whole of one's relations.
Who, born of noble
race, from guilt would shrink with shame,
Pay any price so you
as friend that man may claim.
The friendship of
one who belongs to a (good) family and is afraid of (being charged
with) guilt, is worth even purchasing.
Make them your
chosen friend whose words repentance move,
prescription's path to show, while evil they reprove.
examine and secure the friendship of those who can speak so as to
make you weep over a crime (before its commission) or rebuke you
severely (after you have done it) and are able to teach you (the
ways of) the world.
Ruin itself one
'Tis staff that
measures out one's friends.
Even in ruin
there is some good; (for) it is a rod by which one may measure fully
(the afection of one's) relations.
'Tis gain to any
man, the sages say,
Friendship of fools
to put away.
It is indead a gain for
one to renounce the friendship of fools.
Think not the
thoughts that dwarf the soul; nor take
For friends the men
who friends in time of grief forsake.
Do not think of
things that discourage your mind, nor contract friendship with those
who would forsake you in adversity.
Of friends deserting
us on ruin's brink,
'Tis torture e'en in
life's last hour to think.
The very thought
of the friendship of those who have deserted one at the approach of
adversity will burn one's mind at the time of death.
Cling to the friendship
of the spotless one's; whate'er you pay.
with the men of evil way.
Continue to enjoy
the friendship of the pure; (but) renounce even with a gift, the
friendship of those who do not agree (with the world).
friendship's silent pact,
That puts restraint
on no familiar act.
friendship is that which cannot in the least be injured by (things
done through the) right (of longstanding intimacy).
friendship's very frame supplies;
To be its savour
sweet is duty of the wise.
of friendship are (things done through) the right of intimacy; to be
pleased with such a right is the duty of the wise.
When to familiar
acts men kind response refuse,
What fruit from
ancient friendship's use?
Of what avail is
long-standing friendship, if friends do not admit as their own
actions done through the right of intimacy ?
unbidden do familiar acts with loving heart,
Friends take the
kindly deed in friendly part.
through the right of friendship, do (anything) without being asked,
the wise will be pleased with them on account of its desirability.
Not folly merely,
but familiar carelessness,
Esteem it, when your
friends cause you distress.
If friends should
perform what is painful, understand that it is owing not only to
ignorance, but also to the strong claims of intimacy.
Who stand within the
bounds quit not, though loss impends,
Association with the
old familiar friends.
Those who stand
within the limits (of true friendship) will not even in adversity
give up the intimacy of long-standing friends.
True friends, well
versed in loving ways,
Cease not to love,
when friend their love betrays.
Those who have
(long) stood in the path of afection will not give it up even if
their friends cause (them) their ruin.
In strength of
friendship rare of friend's disgrace who will not hear,
The day his friend
offends will day of grace to him appear.
To those who
understand that by which they should not listen to (tales about) the
faults of their friends, that is a (profitable) day on which the
latter may commit a fault.
Friendship of old
and faithful friends,
Who ne'er forsake,
the world commends.
They will be
loved by the world, who have not forsaken the friendship of those
with whom they have kept up an unbroken long-standing intimacy.
Ill-wishers even wish
them well, who guard.
For ancient friends,
their wonted kind regard.
Even enemies will love
those who have never changed in their affection to their
2.3.9. Evil Friendship
Though evil men should
all-absorbing friendship show,
Their love had
better die away than grow.
The decrease of
friendship with those who look as if they would eat you up (through
excess of love) while they are really destitute of goodness is far
better than its increase.
What though you gain or
lose friendship of men of alien heart,
Who when you thrive
are friends, and when you fail depart?
Of what avail is
it to get or lose the friendship of those who love when there is
gain and leave when there is none ?
These are alike: the
friends who ponder friendship's gain
Those who accept
whate'er you give, and all the plundering train.
calculate the profits (of their friendship), prostitutes who are
bent on obtaining their gains, and thieves are (all) of the same
A steed untrained
will leave you in the tug of war;
Than friends like
that to dwell alone is better far.
Solitude is more
to be desired than the society of those who resemble the untrained
horses which throw down (their riders) in the fields of battle.
'Tis better not to
gain than gain the friendship profitless
Of men of little
minds, who succour fails when dangers press.
It is far better
to avoid that to contract the evil friendship of the base who cannot
protect (their friends) even when appointed to do so.
Better ten million
times incur the wise man's hate, Than form with foolish men a
The hatred of the wise
is ten-million times more profitable than the excessive intimacy of
From foes ten
million fold a greater good you gain,
yields that's formed with laughers vain.
What comes from
enemies is a hundred million times more profitable than what comes
from the friendship of those who cause only laughter.
Those men who make a
grievous toil of what they do
On your behalf,
their friendship silently eschew.
without revealing (beforehand) the friendship of those who pretend
inability to carry out what they (really) could do.
E'en in a dream the
intercourse is bitterness
With men whose deeds
are other than their words profess.
The friendship of
those whose actions do not agree with their words will distress
(one) even in (one's) dreams.
In anywise maintain not
intercourse with those,
Who in the house are
friends, in hall are slandering foes.
Avoid even the
least approach to a contraction of friendship with those who would
love you in private but ridicule you in public.
Anvil where thou
shalt smitten be, when men occasion find,
Is friendship's form
without consenting mind.
The friendship of
those who behave like friends without inward afection is a weapon
that may be thrown when a favourable opportunity presents itself.
Friendship of those who
seem our kin, but are not really kind.
Will change from
hour to hour like woman's mind.
The friendship of those
who seem to be friends while they are not, will change like the love
goodness men ignoble hardly may attain,
stores of goodly lore they gain.
enemies may have mastered many good books, it will be impossible for
them to become truly loving at heart.
'Tis fitting you
should dread dissemblers' guile,
Whose hearts are
bitter while their faces smile.
One should fear the
deceitful who smile sweetly with their face but never love with
When minds are not
in unison, 'its never; just,
In any words men
speak to put your trust.
In nothing whatever is
it proper to rely on the words of those who do not love with their
Though many goodly
words they speak in friendly tone,
The words of foes
will speedily be known.
foes may utter good things as though they were friends, once will at
once understand (their evil, import).
To pliant speech
from hostile lips give thou no ear;
'Tis pliant bow that
show the deadly peril near!
Since the bending
of the bow bespeaks evil, one should not accept (as good) the
humiliating speeches of one 's foes.
In hands that worship
weapon ten hidden lies;
Such are the tears
that fall from foeman's eyes.
A weapon may be
hid in the very hands with which (one's) foes adore (him) (and) the
tears they shed are of the same nature.
'Tis just, when men
make much of you, and then despise,
To make them smile,
and slap in friendship's guise.
It is the duty of
kings to afect great love but make it die (inwardly); as regard
those foes who shew them great friendship but despise them (in their
When time shall come
that foes as friends appear,
Then thou, to hide a
hostile heart, a smiling face may'st wear.
When one's foes
begin to affect friendship, one should love them with one's looks,
and, cherishing no love in the heart, give up (even the former).
What one thing
merits folly's special name.
Letting gain go,
loss for one's own to claim!
Folly is one (of the
chief defects); it is that which (makes one) incur loss and forego
chiefest folly is to fix your love
On deeds which to
your station unbefitting prove.
The greatest folly is
that which leads one to take delight in doing what is forbidden.
Ashamed of nothing,
searching nothing out, of loveless heart,
'tis thus the fool will play his part.
indifference (to what must be sought after), harshness, and aversion
for everything (that ought to be desired) are the qualities of the
The sacred law he
reads and learns, to other men expounds,‑
Himself obeys not;
where can greater fool be found?
There are no
greater fools than he who, though he has read and understood (a
great deal) and even taught it to others, does not walk according to
his own teaching.
The fool will merit
hell in one brief life on earth,
In which he entering
sinks through sevenfold round of birth.
A fool can
procure in a single birth a hell into which he may enter and sufer
through all the seven births.
When fool some task
attempts with uninstructed pains,
It fails; nor that
alone, himself he binds with chains.
If the fool, who
knows not how to act undertakes a work, he will (certainly) fail.
(But) is it all ? He will even adorn himself with fetters.
When fools are
blessed with fortune's bounteous store,
Their foes feed
full, their friends are prey to hunger sore.
If a fool happens to
get an immense fortune, his neighbours will enjoy it while his
When folly's hand
grasps wealth's increase, 'twill be
As when a mad man
raves in drunken glee.
A fool happening to
possess something is like the intoxication of one who is (already)
Friendship of fools
is very pleasant thing, Parting with them will leave behind no
between fools is exceedingly delightful (to each other): for at
parting there will be nothing to cause them pain.
Like him who seeks
his couch with unwashed feet,
Is fool whose foot
intrudes where wise men meet.
The appearance of a
fool in an assembly of the learned is like placing (one's) unwashed
feet on a bed.
Want of knowledge,
'mid all wants the sorest want we deem;
Want of other things
the world will not as want esteem.
The want of wisdom is
the greatest of all wants; but that of wealth the world will not
regard as such.
The gift of foolish
man, with willing heart bestowed, is nought,
But blessing by
receiver's penance bought.
(The cause of) a
fool cheerfully giving (something) is nothing else but the
receiver's merit (in a former birth).
With keener anguish
foolish men their own hearts wring,
Than aught that even
malice of their foes can bring.
The suffering that
fools inflict upon themselves is hardly possible even to foes.
What is stupidity?
The arrogance that cries,
'Behold, we claim
the glory of the wise.'
What is called want of
wisdom is the vanity which says, "We are wise".
If men what they
have never learned assume to know,
Upon their real
learning's power a doubt 'twill throw.
to know what has not been read (by them) will rouse suspicion even
as to what they have thoroughly mastered.
Fools are they who
their nakedness conceal,
And yet their faults
Even to cover one's
nakedness would be folly, if (one's) faults were not covered (by
From out his soul
who lets the mystic teachings die,
Entails upon himself
The fool who neglects
precious counsel does, of his own accord, a great injury to himself.
Advised, he heeds
not; of himself knows nothing wise; This man's whole life is all one
plague until he dies.
The fool will not
perform (his duties) even when advised nor ascertain them himself;
such a soul is a burden (to the earth) till it departs (from the
That man is blind to
eyes that will not see who knowledge shows;‑
The blind man still
in his blind fashion knows.
One who would
teach a fool will (simply) betray his folly; and the fool would
(still) think himself "wise in his own conceit".
Who what the world
affirms as false proclaim,
O'er all the earth
receive a demon's name.
He who denies the
existence of what the world believes in will be regarded as a demon
plague will bring,
That evil quality,
to every living thing.
The disease which
fosters the evil of disunion among all creatures is termed hatred by
Though men disunion
plan, and do thee much despite
'Tis best no enmity
to plan, nor evil deeds requite.
disagreeable things may be done from (a feeling of) disunion, it is
far better that nothing painful be done from (that of) hatred.
If enmity, that
grievous plague, you shun,
praises shall be won.
To rid one-self
of the distressing dtsease of hatred will bestow (on one) a
never-decreasing imperishable fame.
Joy of joys abundant
When malice dies
that woe of woes.
If hatred which is the
greatest misery is destroyed, it will yield the greatest delight.
If men from enmity
can keep their spirits free,
Who over them shall
gain the victory?
Who indeed would think
of conquering those who naturally shrink back from hatred ?
The life of those
who cherished enmity hold dear,
To grievous fault
and utter death is near.
Failure and ruin are
not far from him who says it is sweet to excel in hatred.
The very truth that
greatness gives their eyes can never see,
Who only know to work
men woe, fulfilled of enmity.
judgement brings misery through its connection with hatred cannot
understand the triumphant nature of truth.
'Tis gain to turn
the soul from enmity; Ruin reigns where this hath mastery.
Shrinking back from
hatred will yield wealth; indulging in its increase will hasten
Men think not
hostile thought in fortune's favouring hour,
They cherish enmity
when in misfortune's power.
At the approach
of wealth one will not think of hatred (but) to secure one's ruin,
one will look to its increase.
From enmity do all
afflictive evils flow;
doth wealth of kindly good bestow.
are caused by hatred; but by the delight (of friendship) is caused
the great wealth of good virtues.
2.3.14. The Might of
With stronger than
thyself, turn from the strife away;
With weaker shun
not, rather court the fray.
resistance to the strong; (but) never fail to cherish enmity towards
No kinsman's love, no
strength of friends has he;
How can he bear his
How can he who is
unloving, destitute of powerful aids, and himself without strength
overcome the might of his foe ?
A craven thing!
knows nought, accords with none, gives nought away;
To wrath of any foe
he falls an easy prey.
In the estimation of
foes miserably weak is he, who is timid, ignorant, unsociable and
His wrath still
blazes, every secret told; each day
This man's in every
place to every foe an easy prey.
He who neither
refrains from anger nor keeps his secrets will at all times and in
all places be easily conquered by all.
No way of right he
scans, no precepts bind, no crimes affright,
No grace of good he
owns; such man's his foes' delight.
(object) to his foes is he who reads not moral works, does nothing
that is enjoined by them cares not for reproach and is not possessed
of good qualities.
Blind in his rage, his
lustful passions rage and swell;
If such a man
mislikes you, like it well.
Highly to be
desired is the hatred of him whose anger is blind, and whose lust
increases beyond measure.
Unseemly are his
deeds, yet proffering aid, the man draws nigh:
His hate- 'tis cheap
at any price- be sure to buy!
It is indeed
necessary to obtain even by purchase the hatred of him who having
begun (a work) does what is not conductive (to its accomplishment).
No gracious gifts he
owns, faults many cloud his fame;
His foes rejoice,
for none with kindred claim.
He will become
friendless who is without (any good) qualities. and whose faults are
many; (such a character) is a help to (his) foes.
The joy of victory
is never far removed from those
Who've luck to meet
with ignorant and timid foes.
There will be no end of
lofty delights to the victorious, if their foes are (both) ignorant
The task of angry
war with men unlearned in virtue's lore
Who will not meet,
glory shall meet him never more.
The light (of
fame) will never be gained by him who gains not the trifling
reputation of having fought an unlearned (foe).
2.3.15. Knowing the
Quality of Hate
For Hate, that
ill-conditioned thing not e'en in jest.
Let any evil longing
rule your breast.
The evil of hatred is
not of a nature to be desired by one even in sport.
Although you hate
incur of those whose ploughs are bows,
Make not the men
whose ploughs are words your foes!
Though you may
incur the hatred of warriors whose ploughs are bows, incur not that
of ministers whose ploughs are words.
Than men of mind
diseased, a wretch more utterly forlorn,
Is he who stands
alone, object of many foeman's scorn.
He who being alone,
incurs the hatred of many is more infatuated than even mad men.
The world secure on his
Whose worthy rule can
change his foes to friends.
The world abides
in the greatness of that good-natured man who behaves so as to turn
hatred into friendship.
Without ally, who fights
with twofold enemy o'ermatched, Must render one of these a
He who is alone and
helpless while his foes are two should secure of them as an
agreeable help one (to himself).
Whether you trust or not,
in time of sore distress, Questions of diff'rence or
agreement cease to press.
Though (one's foe is) aware or not of one's misfortune one
should act so as neither to join nor separate (from him).
To those who know
them not, complain not of your woes;
Nor to your foeman's
eyes infirmities disclose.
Relate not your
sufering even to friends who are ignorant of it, nor refer to your
weakness in the presence of your foes.
Know thou the way,
then do thy part, thyself defend;
Thus shall the pride
of those that hate thee have an end.
The joy of one's
foes will be destroyed if one guards oneself by knowing the way (of
acting) and securing assistance.
Destroy the thorn,
while tender point can work thee no offence;
Matured by time,
'twill pierce the hand that plucks it thence.
A thorny tree should be
felled while young, (for) when it is grown it will destroy the hand
of the feller.
But breathe upon them,
and they surely die,
Who fail to tame the
pride of angry enemy.
Those who do not
destroy the pride of those who hate (them) will certainly not exist
even to breathe.
2.3.16. Enmity within
Water and shade, if
they unwholesome prove, will bring you pain.
And qualities of
friends who treacherous act, will be your bane.
Shade and water
are not pleasant, (if) they cause disease; so are the qualities of
(one's) relations not agreeable, (if) they cause pain.
Dread not the foes
that as drawn swords appear; Friendship of foes, who seem like
Fear not foes
(who say they would cut) like a sword; (but) fear the friendship of
foes (who seemingly act) like relations.
Of hidden hate
beware, and guard thy life;
In troublous time
'twill deeper wound than potter's knife.
enmity and guard yourself; (if not) it will destroy (you) in an evil
hour, as surely as the tool which cuts the potter's clay.
If secret enmities
arise that minds pervert,
Then even kin unkind
will work thee grievous hurt.
The secret enmity
of a person whose mind in unreformed will lead to many evils causing
disafection among (one's) relations.
Amid one's relatives
if hidden hath arise,
'Twill hurt inflict
in deadly wise.
If there appears
internal hatred in a (king's) family; it will lead to many a fatal
If discord finds a
place midst those who dwelt at one before,
'Tis ever hard to
keep destruction from the door.
If hatred arises among
(one's) own people, it will be hardly possible (for one) to escape
As casket with its
cover, though in one they live alway, No union to the house where
hate concealed hath sway.
Never indeed will
a family subject to internal hatred unite (really) though it may
present an apparent union like that of a casket and its lid.
As gold with which the
file contends is worn away,
So strength of house
declines where hate concealed hath sway.
A family subject
to internal hatred will wear out and lose its strength like iron
that has been filed away.
Though slight as
shred of 'seasame' seed it be,
Destruction lurks in
hatred be as small as the fragment of the sesamum (seed), still does
destruction dwell in it.
Domestic life with
those who don't agree,
Is dwelling in a
shed with snake for company.
Living with those who
do not agree (with one) is like dwelling with a cobra (in the same)
2.3.17. Not Offending
The chiefest care of
those who guard themselves from ill,
Is not to slight the
powers of those who work their mighty will.
Not to disregard
the power of those who can carry out (their wishes) is more
important than all the watchfulness of those who guard (themselves
If men will lead
their lives reckless of great men's will,
Such life, through
great men's powers, will bring perpetual ill.
To behave without
respect for the great (rulers) will make them do (us) irremediable
Who ruin covet let
them shut their ears, and do despite
To those who, where
they list to ruin have the might.
If a person
desires ruin, let him not listen to the righteous dictates of law,
but commit crimes against those who are able to slay (other
When powerless man
'gainst men of power will evil deeds essay,
Tis beck'ning with
the hand for Death to seize them for its prey.
The weak doing evil to
the strong is like beckoning Yama to come (and destroy them).
Who dare the fiery
wrath of monarchs dread,
Where'er they flee,
are numbered with the dead.
Those who have
incurred the wrath of a cruel and mighty potentate will not prosper
wherever they may go.
Though in the
conflagration caught, he may escape from thence:
He 'scapes not who
in life to great ones gives offence.
Though burnt by a
fire (from a forest), one may perhaps live; (but) never will he live
who has shown disrespect to the great (devotees).
Though every royal
gift, and stores of wealth your life should crown,
What are they, if
the worthy men of mighty virtue frown?
If a king incurs
the wrath of the righteous great, what will become of his government
with its splendid auxiliaries and (all) its untold wealth ?
If they, whose
virtues like a mountain rise, are light esteemed;
They die from earth
who, with their households, ever-during seemed.
hill-like (devotees) resolve on destruction, those who seemed to be
everlasting will be destroyed root and branch from the earth.
When blazes forth the
wrath of men of lofty fame,
Kings even fall from
high estate and perish in the flame.
If those of
exalted vows burst in a rage, even (Indra) the king will sufer a
sudden loss and be entirely ruined.
all-surpassing wealth of aid the boast,
If men in glorious
virtue great are wrath, they're lost.
possession of numerous auxiliaries, they will perish who are-exposed
to the wrath of the noble whose penance is boundless.
2.3.18. Being led by
Who give their soul
to love of wife acquire not nobler gain;
Who give their soul
to strenuous deeds such meaner joys disdain.
Those who lust
after their wives will not attain the excellence of virtue; and it
is just this that is not desired by those who are bent on acquiring
Who gives himself to
love of wife, careless of noble name
His wealth will
clothe him with o'erwhelming shame.
The wealth of him
who, regardless (of his manliness), devotes himself to his wife's
feminine nature will cause great shame (to ali men) and to himself;
Who to his wife
submits, his strange, unmanly mood
Will daily bring him
shame among the good.
The frailty that stoops
to a wife will always make (her husband) feel ashamed among the
No glory crowns e'en
manly actions wrought
By him who dreads
his wife, nor gives the other world a thought.
of one, who fears his wife and is therefore destitute of (bliss),
will never be applauded.
Who quakes before
his wife will ever tremble too,
Good deeds to men of
good deserts to do.
He that fears his wife
will always be afraid of doing good deeds (even) to the good.
Though, like the
demi-gods, in bliss they dwell secure from harm,
Those have no
dignity who fear the housewife's slender arm.
They that fear
the bamboo-like shoulders of their wives will be destitute of
manliness though they may flourish like the Gods.
The dignity of
modest womanhood excels
obedient to a woman's law who dwells.
Even shame faced
womanhood is more to be esteemed than the shameless manhood that
performs the behests of a wife.
Who to the will of
her with beauteous brow their lives conform,
Aid not their
friends in need, nor acts of charity perform.
Those who yield
to the wishes of their wives will neither relieve the wants of
(their) friends nor perform virtuous deeds.
No virtuous deed, no
seemly wealth, no pleasure, rests
With them who live
obedient to their wives' behests.
From those who
obey the commands of their wives are to be expected neither deeds of
virtue, nor those of wealth nor (even) those of pleasure.
Where pleasures of
the mind, that dwell in realms of thought, abound,
Folly, that springs
from overweening woman's love, is never found.
that results from devotion to a wife will never be found in those
who possess a reflecting mind and a prosperity (flowing) therefrom.
Those that choice
armlets wear who seek not thee with love,
But seek thy wealth,
their pleasant words will ruin prove.
The sweet words
of elegant braceleted (prostitutes) who desire (a man) not from
afection but from avarice, will cause sorrow.
Who weigh the gain,
and utter virtuous words with vicious heart,
women's worth, from their society depart.
ascertain the character of the ill-natured women who after
ascertaining the wealth (of a man) speak (as if they were) good
natured-ones, and avoid intercourse (with them).
As one in darkened room,
some stranger corpse inarms,
Is he who seeks delight in
mercenary women's charms!
The false embraces of
wealth-loving women are like (hired men) embracing astrange
corpse in a dark room.
charms, whose only weal is wealth of gain,
From touch of these
the wise, who seek the wealth of grace, abstain.
The wise who seek
the wealth of grace will not desire the base favours of those who
regard wealth (and not pleasure) as (their) riches.
From contact with
their worthless charms, whose charms to all are free, The men with
sense of good and lofty wisdom blest will flee;
knowledge is made excellent by their (natural) sense will not covet
the trfling delights of those whose favours are common (to all).
From touch of those
who worthless charms, with wanton arts, display,
The men who would
their own true good maintain will turn away.
Those who would
spread (the fame of) their own goodness will not desire the
shoulders of those,who rejoice in their accomplishments and bestow
their despicable favours (on all who pay).
Who cherish alien
thoughts while folding in their feigned embrace,
These none approach
save those devoid of virtue's grace.
Those who are
destitute of a perfectly (reformed) mind will covet the shoulders of
those who embrace (them) while their hearts covet other things.
As demoness who
lures to ruin woman's treacherous love
To men devoid of
wisdom's searching power will prove.
The wise say that
to such as are destitute of discerning sense the embraces of
faithless women are (as ruinous as those of) the celestail female.
The wanton's tender
arm, with gleaming jewels decked,
Is hell, where sink
degraded souls of men abject.
shoulders of prostitutes with excellent jewels are a hell into which
are plunged the ignorant base.
Women of double
minds, strong drink, and dice; to these giv'n o'er,
Are those on whom
the light of Fortune shines no more.
liquor, and gambling are the associates of such as have forsaken by
2.3.20. Not Drinking
Who love the palm's
intoxicating juice, each day,
No rev'rence they
command, their glory fades away.
Those who always
thirst after drink will neither inspire fear (in others) nor retain
the light (of their fame).
inebriating draught. Let him count well the cost.
Who drinks, by
drinking, all good men's esteem is lost.
Let no liquor be drunk;
if it is desired, let it be drunk by those who care not for esteem
of the great.
The drunkard's joy
is sorrow to his mother's eyes;
What must it be in
presence of the truly wise?
painful even in the presence of (one's) mother; what will it not
then be in that of the wise ?
Shame, goodly maid,
will turn her back for aye on them
Who sin the
drunkard's grievous sin, that all condemn.
The fair maid of
modesty will turn her back on those who are guilty of the great and
abominable crime of drunkenness.
With gift of goods
who self-oblivion buys,
Is ignorant of all
that man should prize.
To give money and
purchase unconsciousness is the result of one's ignorance of (one's
Sleepers are as the
dead, no otherwise they seem;
intoxicating draughts, they poison quaff, we deem.
They that sleep
resemble the deed; (likewise) they that drink are no other than
Who turn aside to
drink, and droop their heavy eye,
Shall be their
townsmen's jest, when they the fault espy.
Those who always
intoxicate themselves by a private (indulgence in) drink; will have
their secrets detected and laughed at by their fellow-townsmen.
No more in secret
drink, and then deny thy hidden fraud;
What in thy mind
lies hid shall soon be known abroad.
drunkard) give up saying "I have never drunk"; (for) the moment (he
drinks) he will simply betray his former attempt to conceal.
Like him who, lamp
in hand, would seek one sunk beneath the wave.
Is he who strives to
sober drunken man with reasonings grave.
Reasoning with a
drunkard is like going under water with a torch in search of a
When one, in sober
interval, a drunken man espies,
Does he not think,
'Such is my folly in my revelries'?
When (a drunkard)
who is sober sees one who is not, it looks as if he remembered not
the evil efects of his (own) drink.
Seek not the
gamester's play; though you should win,
Your gain is as the
baited hook the fish takes in.
Though able to
win, let not one desire gambling; (for) even what is won is like a
fish swallowing the iron in fish-hook.
Is there for gamblers,
too, that gaining one a hundred lose, some way
That they may good
obtain, and see a prosperous day?
Is there indeed a
means of livelihood that can bestow happiness on gamblers who gain
one and lose a hundred ?
If prince unceasing
speak of nought but play,
Treasure and revenue
will pass from him away.
If the king is
incessantly addicted to the rolling dice in the hope of gain, his
wealth and the resources thereof will take their departure and fall
into other's hands.
Gaming brings many woes,
and ruins fair renown;
Nothing to want brings men
so surely down.
There is nothing else
that brings (us) poverty like gambling which causes many a
misery and destroys (one's) reputation.
The dice, and
gaming-hall, and gamester's art, they eager sought,
Thirsting for gain-
the men in other days who came to nought.
those who by reason of their attachment would never forsake
gambling, the gambling-place and the handling (of dice).
Misfortune's other name: o'er whom she casts her veil,
They suffer grievous
want, and sorrows sore bewail.
Those who are
swallowed by the goddess called "gambling" will never have their
hunger satisfied, but suffer the pangs of hell in the next world.
Ancestral wealth and
noble fame to ruin haste,
If men in gambler's
halls their precious moments waste.
To waste time at the
place of gambling will destroy inherited wealth and goodness of
wealth, to falsehood bends the soul: it drives away
All grace, and
leaves the man to utter misery a prey.
property, teaches falsehood, puts an end to benevolence, and brings
in misery (here and hereafter).
food, praise, and learning, all depart
From him on
gambler's gain who sets his heart.
The habit of gambling
prevents the attainment of these five: clothing, wealth, food, fame
Howe'er he lose, the
gambler's heart is ever in the play;
E'en so the soul,
despite its griefs, would live on earth alway.
As the gambler
loves (his vice) the more he loses by it, so does the soul love (the
body) the more it suffers through it.
The learned books
count three, with wind as first; of these,
As any one prevail,
or fail; 'twill cause disease.
If (food and work
are either) excessive or deficient, the three things enumerated by
(medical) writers, flatulence, biliousness, and phlegm, will cause
No need of medicine
to heal your body's pain,
If, what you ate
before digested well, you eat again.
No medicine is
necessary for him who eats after assuring (himself) that what he has
(already) eaten has been digested.
Who has a body
gained may long the gift retain,
If, food digested
well, in measure due he eat again.
If (one's food
has been) digested let one eat with moderation; (for) that is the
way to prolong the life of an embodied soul.
Knowing the food
digested well, when hunger prompteth thee,
With constant care,
the viands choose that well agree.
yourself that your food has been digested and never fail to eat,
when very hungry, whatever is not disagreeable (to you).
take the well-selected meal;
So shall thy frame
no sudden sickness feel.
There will be no
disaster to one's life if one eats with moderation, food that is not
On modest temperance
as pleasures pure,
So pain attends the
dwells with him who eats moderately, so disease (dwells) with the
glutton who eats voraciously.
Who largely feeds,
nor measure of the fire within maintains,
That thoughtless man
shall feel unmeasured pains.
He will be
aflicted with numberless diseases, who eats immoderately, ignorant
(of the rules of health).
Disease, its cause,
what may abate the ill:
Let leech examine
these, then use his skill.
Let the physician
enquire into the (nature of the) disease, its cause and its method
of cure and treat it faithfully according to (medical rule).
The habitudes of
patient and disease, the crises of the ill
These must the
learned leech think over well, then use his skill.
(physician) should ascertain the condition of his patient; the
nature of his disease, and the season (of the year) and (then)
proceed (with his treatment).
For patient, leech,
and remedies, and him who waits by patient's side,
The art of medicine
must fourfold code of laws provide.
consists of four parts, viz., patient, physician, medicine and
compounder; and each of these (again) contains four sub-divisions.
Save in the scions
of a noble house, you never find
Instinctive sense of
right and virtuous shame combined.
thought, word and deed) and fear (of sin) are conjointly natural
only to the high-born.
In these three
things the men of noble birth fail not:
In virtuous deed and
truthful word, and chastened thought.
The high-born will
never deviate from these three; good manners, truthfulness and
The smile, the gift,
the pleasant word, unfailing courtesy
These are the signs,
they say, of true nobility.
countenance, liberality, pleasant words, and an unreviling
disposition, these four are said to be the proper qualities of the
Millions on millions
piled would never win
The men of noble
race to soul-degrading sin.
Though blessed with
immense wealth, the noble will never do anything unbecoming.
Though stores for
charity should fail within, the ancient race
Will never lose its
old ancestral grace.
Though their means fall
off, those born in ancient families, will not lose their character
Whose minds are set
to live as fits their sire's unspotted fame,
Stooping to low
deceit, commit no deeds that gender shame.
Those who seek to
preserve the irreproachable honour of their families will not
viciously do what is detrimental thereto.
The faults of men of
noble race are seen by every eye,
As spots on her bright
orb that walks sublime the evening sky.
The defects of the
noble will be observed as clearly as the dark spots in the moon.
If lack of love
appear in those who bear some goodly name,
'Twill make men
doubt the ancestry they claim.
If one of a good family
betrays want of affection, his descent from it will be called in
Of soil the plants
that spring thereout will show the worth:
The words they speak
declare the men of noble birth.
As the sprout indicates
the nature of the soil, (so) the speech of the noble indicates (that
of one's birth).
Who seek for good
the grace of virtuous shame must know;
Who seek for noble
name to all must reverence show.
He who desires a
good name must desire modesty; and he who desires (the continuance
of) a family greatness must be submissive to all.
Though linked to
splendours man no otherwise may gain,
Reject each act that
may thine honour's clearness stain.
would degrade (one's) family should not be done; though they may be
so important that not doing them would end in death.
Who seek with glory
to combine honour's untarnished fame,
Do no inglorious
deeds, though men accord them glory's name.
Those who desire
(to maintain their) honour, will surely do nothing dishonourable,
even for the sake of fame.
Bow down thy soul,
with increase blest, in happy hour;
Lift up thy heart,
when stript of all by fortune's power.
In great prosperity
humility is becoming; dignity, in great adversity.
Like hairs from off
the head that fall to earth,
When fall'n from
high estate are men of noble birth.
They who have fallen
from their (high) position are like the hair which has fallen from
If meanness, slight
as 'abrus' grain, by men be wrought,
Though like a
hill their high estate, they sink to nought.
Even those who are
exalted like a hill will be thought low, if they commit deeds that
It yields no praise,
nor to the land of Gods throws wide the gate:
Why follow men who
scorn, and at their bidding wait?
Of what good is
it (for the high-born) to go and stand in vain before those who
revile him ? it only brings him loss of honour and exclusion from
Better 'twere said,
'He's perished!' than to gain
The means to live,
following in foeman's train.
It is better for
a man to be said of him that he died in his usual state than that he
eked out his life by following those who disgraced him.
When high estate has
lost its pride of honour meet,
Is life, that nurses
this poor flesh, as nectar sweet?
For the high-born
to keep their body in life when their honour is gone will certainly
not prove a remedy against death.
Like the wild ox
that, of its tuft bereft, will pine away,
Are those who, of
their honour shorn, will quit the light of day.
Those who give up
(their) life when (their) honour is at stake are like the yark which
kills itself at the loss of (even one of) its hairs.
Who, when dishonour
comes, refuse to live, their honoured memory
Will live in worship
and applause of all the world for aye!
The world will
(always) praise and adore the fame of the honourable who would
rather die than sufer indignity.
The light of life is
mental energy; disgrace is his
Who says, 'I 'ill
lead a happy life devoid of this.'
One's light is
the abundance of one's courage; one's darkness is the desire to live
destitute of such (a state of mind.)
All men that live
are one in circumstances of birth;
Diversities of works
give each his special worth.
All human beings
agree as regards their birth but difer as regards their
characteristics, because of the d ifferent qualities of their
The men of lofty line,
whose souls are mean, are never great
The men of lowly birth,
when high of soul, are not of low estate.
Though (raised) above,
the base cannot become great; though (brought) low,the great
cannot become base.
Like single-hearted women,
Exists while to
itself is true.
Even greatness, like a
woman's chastity, belongs only to him who guards himself.
The man endowed with
Rare deeds in
perfect wise will do.
the great will be able to perform, in the proper way, deeds dificult
(for others to do).
'As votaries of the
truly great we will ourselves enroll,'
Is thought that
enters not the mind of men of little soul.
It is never in the
nature of the base to seek the society of the great and partake of
lights on some unworthy head,
Then deeds of
haughty insolence are bred.
Even nobility of
birth, wealth and learning, if in (the possession of) the base, will
(only) produce everincreasing pride.
bends, but littleness always
Spreads out its
plumes, and loads itself with praise.
The great will always
humble himself; but the mean will exalt himself in self-admiration.
Greatness is absence
of conceit; meanness, we deem,
Riding on car of
conceit is (the nature of true) greatness; (while) obstinacy therein
is (that of) meanness.
Greatness will hide
a neighbour's shame;
Meanness his faults
to all the world proclaim.
The great hide the
faults of others; the base only divulge them.
All goodly things
are duties to the men, they say
Who set themselves
to walk in virtue's perfect way.
It is said that
those who are conscious of their duty and behave with a perfect
goodness will regard as natu ral all that is good.
The good of inward
excellence they claim,
The perfect men; all
other good is only good in name.
The only delight
of the perfect is that of their goodness; all other (sensual)
delights are not to be included among any (true) delights.
beneficence, benignant grace,
With truth, are pillars
five of perfect virtue's resting-place.
Affection, fear (of sin), benevolence, favour
and truthfulness; these perfect are the five pillars on
which goodness rests.
The type of
'penitence' is virtuous good that nothing slays;
To speak no ill of
other men is perfect virtue's praise.
in the goodness that kills not , and perfection in the goodness that
tells not others' faults.
Submission is the
might of men of mighty acts; the sage
With that same
weapon stills his foeman's rage.
inferiors) is the strength of those who can accomplish (an
undertaking); and that is the weapon with which the great avert
What is perfection's
test? The equal mind.
To bear repulse from
even meaner men resigned.
The touch-stone of
perfection is to receive a defeat even at the hands of one's
What fruit doth your
perfection yield you, say!
Unless to men who
work you ill good repay?
Of what avail is
perfect goodness if it cannot do pleasing things even to those who
have pained (it) ?
To soul with perfect
virtue's strength endued,
Brings no disgrace
the lack of every earthly good.
Poverty is no disgrace
to one who abounds in good qualities.
Call them of perfect
virtue's sea the shore,
Who, though the
fates should fail, fail not for evermore.
Those who are
said to be the shore of the sea of perfection will never change,
though ages may change.
The mighty earth its
burthen to sustain must cease,
If perfect virtue of
the perfect men decrease.
If there is a defect in
the character of the perfect, (even) the great world cannot bear
Who easy access give
to every man, they say,
Of kindly courtesy
will learn with ease the way.
If one is easy of
access to all, it will be easy for one to obtain the virtue called
Benevolence and high
These two are beaten
paths of courtesy.
and birth in a good family, these two constitute what is called a
proper behaviour to all.
Men are not one
because their members seem alike to outward view;
kindred quality makes likeness true.
bodies is no resemblance of souls; true resemblance is the
resemblance of qualities that attract.
Of men of fruitful
life, who kindly benefits dispense,
The world unites to
praise the 'noble excellence.'
The world applauds the
character of those whose usefulness results from their equity and
Contempt is evil
though in sport. They who man's nature know,
E'en in their wrath,
a courteous mind will show.
painful to one even in sport; those (therefore) who know the nature
of others exhibit (pleasing) qualities even when they are hated.
The world abides;
for 'worthy' men its weight sustain.
Were it not so,
'twould fall to dust again.
The (way of the)
world subsists by contact with the good; if not, it would bury
itself in the earth and perish.
Though sharp their
wit as file, as blocks they must remain,
Whose souls are void
of 'courtesy humane'.
He who is
destitute of (true) human qualities (only) resembles a tree, though
he may possess the sharpness of a file.
Though men with all
unfriendly acts and wrongs assail,
disgrace in 'courtesy' to fail.
It is wrong (for
the wise) not to exhibit (good) qualities even towards those who
bearing no friendship (for them) do only what is hateful.
To him who knows not
how to smile in kindly mirth,
Darkness in daytime
broods o'er all the vast and mighty earth.
To those who cannot
rejoice, the wide world is buried darkness even in (broad) day
Like sweet milk soured
because in filthy vessel poured,
Is ample wealth in
churlish man's unopened coffers stored.
The great wealth
obtained by one who has no goodness will perish like pure milk
spoilt by the impurity of the vessel.
2.4.6. Wealth without
Who fills his house
with ample store, enjoying none,
Is dead. Nought with
the useless heap is done.
He who does not
enjoy the immense riches he has heaped up in his house, is (to be
reckoned as) dead, (for) there is nothing achieved (by him).
Who giving nought,
opines from wealth all blessing springs,
Degraded birth that
doting miser's folly brings.
He who knows that
wealth yields every pleasure and yet is so blind as to lead miserly
life will be born a demon.
Who lust to heap up
wealth, but glory hold not dear,
It burthens earth
when on the stage of being they appear.
A burden to the earth
are men bent on the acquisition of riches and not (true) fame.
Whom no one loves,
when he shall pass away,
What doth he look to
leave behind, I pray?
What will the miser who
is not liked (by any one) regard as his own (in the world to come) ?
millions they are poor,
Who nothing give and
nought enjoy of all they store.
Those who neither
give (to others) nor enjoy (their property) are (truly) destitute,
though possessing immense riches.
Their ample wealth is
misery to men of churlish heart,
themselves enjoy, and nought to worthy men impart.
He who enjoys not (his
riches) nor relieves the wants of the worthy is a disease to his
Like woman fair in
lonelihood who aged grows,
Is wealth of him on
needy men who nought bestows.
The wealth of him
who never bestows anything on the destitute is like a woman of
beauty growing old without a husband.
When he whom no man
loves exults in great prosperity,
'Tis as when fruits
in midmost of the town some poisonous tree.
The wealth of him who
is disliked (by all) is like the fruit-bearing of the etty tree in
the midst of a town.
Who love abandon,
self-afflict, and virtue's way forsake
To heap up
glittering wealth, their hoards shall others take.
inherit the riches that have been acquired without regard for
friendship, comfort and charity.
'Tis as when rain cloud
in the heaven grows day,
wealthy man endures brief poverty.
poverty of those who are noble and rich is like the clouds becoming
poor (for a while).
To shrink abashed from
evil deed is 'generous shame';
Other is that of
bright-browed one of virtuous fame.
True modesty is
the fear of (evil) deeds; all other modesty is (simply) the
bashfulness of virtuous maids.
Food, clothing, and
other things alike all beings own;
By sense of shame
the excellence of men is known.
Food, clothing and the
like are common to all men but modesty is peculiar to the good.
All spirits homes of
flesh as habitation claim,
And perfect virtue
ever dwells with shame.
As the body is the
abode of the spirit, so the excellence of modesty is the abode of
And is not shame an
ornament to men of dignity?
Without it step of
stately pride is piteous thing to see.
Is not the modesty
ornament of the noble ? Without it, their haughtiness would be a
pain (to others).
As home of virtuous
shame by all the world the men are known,
Who feel ashamed for
others, guilt as for their own.
The world regards as
the abode of modesty him who fear his own and other's guilt.
Unless the hedge of
shame inviolate remain,
For men of lofty
soul the earth's vast realms no charms retain.
The great make modesty
their barrier (of defence) and not the wide world.
The men of modest
soul for shame would life an offering make,
But ne'er abandon
virtuous shame for life's dear sake.
The modest would rather
lose their life for the sake of modesty than lose modesty for the
sake of life.
Though know'st no
shame, while all around asha med must be:
Virtue will shrink
away ashamed of thee!
Virtue is likely to
forsake him who shamelessly does what others are ashamed of.
'Twill race consume
if right observance fail;
'Twill every good
consume if shamelessness prevail.
Want of manners injures
one's family; but want of modesty injures one's character.
'Tis as with strings a
wooden puppet apes life's functions, when
Those void of shame
within hold intercourse with men.
The actions of those
who are without modesty at heart are like those of puppet moved by a
2.4.8. The Way of
Maintaining the Family
Who says 'I'll do my
work, nor slack my hand',
clothed with dignity supreme, shall stand.
There is no higher
greatness than that of one saying. I will not cease in my effort (to
raise my family).
The manly act and
knowledge full, when these combine
In deed prolonged,
then lengthens out the race's line.
One's family is raised
by unti ring perseverance in both efort and wise contrivances.
'I'll make my race
renowned,' if man shall say,
With vest succinct
the goddess leads the way.
The Deity will clothe
itself and appear before him who resolves on raising his family.
Who labours for his
race with unremitting pain,
Without a thought
spontaneously, his end will gain.
Those who are
prompt in their eforts (to better their family) need no
deliberation, such eforts will of themselves succeed.
With blameless life
who seeks to build his race's fame,
The world shall
circle him, and kindred claim.
eagerly seek the friendship of the prosperous soul who has raised
his family without foul means.
Of virtuous manliness
the world accords the praise
To him who gives his
powers, the house from which he sprang to raise.
A man's true manliness
consists in making himself the head and benefactor of his family.
The fearless hero bears
the brunt amid the warrior throng;
Amid his kindred so
the burthen rests upon the strong.
Like heroes in
the battle-field, the burden (of protection etc.) is borne by those
who are the most eficient in a family.
Wait for no season,
when you would your house uprear;
'Twill perish, if
you wait supine, or hold your honour dear.
As a family
sufers by (one's) indolence and false dignity there is to be so
season (good or bad) to those who strive to raise their family.
Is not his body vase
that various sorrows fill,
Who would his
household screen from every ill?
Is it only to sufering
that his body is exposed who undertakes to preserve his family from
When trouble the
foundation saps the house must fall,
If no strong hand be
nigh to prop the tottering wall.
If there are none
to prop up and maintain a family (in distress), it will fall at the
stroke of the axe of misfortune.
Howe'er they roam,
the world must follow still the plougher's team;
culture of the ground as noblest toil esteem.
though laborious, is the most excellent (form of labour); for
people, though they go about (in search of various employments),
have at last to resort to the farmer.
The ploughers are
the linch-pin of the world; they bear
Them up who other
works perform, too weak its toils to share.
are (as it were) the linch-pin of the world for they support all
other workers who cannot till the soil.
Who ploughing eat
their food, they truly live:
The rest to others
bend subservient, eating what they give.
They alone live who
live by agriculture; all others lead a cringing, dependent life.
O'er many a land
they 'll see their monarch reign,
Whose fields are
shaded by the waving grain.
desire to bring all other states under the control of their own
They nothing ask
from others, but to askers give,
Who raise with their
own hands the food on which they live.
Those whose nature is
to live by manual labour will never beg but give something to those
For those who 've
left what all men love no place is found, When they with folded
hands remain who till the ground.
If the farmer's hands
are slackened, even the ascetic state will fail.
Reduce your soil to
that dry state, When ounce is quarter-ounce's weight;
Without one handful
of manure, Abundant crops you thus secure.
If the land is
dried so as to reduce one ounce of earth to a quarter, it will grow
plentifully even without a handful of manure.
To cast manure is
better than to plough;
Weed well; to guard
is more than watering now
Manuring is better than
ploughing; after weeding, watching is better than watering (it).
When master from the
field aloof hath stood;
Then land will sulk,
like wife in angry mood.
If the owner does
not (personally) attend to his cultivation, his land will behave
like an angry wife and yield him no pleasure.
The earth, that
kindly dame, will laugh to see,
Men seated idle
The maiden, Earth, will
laugh at the sight of those who plead poverty and lead an idle life.
You ask what sharper
pain than poverty is known; Nothing pains more than poverty, save
There is nothing that aflicts (one)
matchless! poverty destroys
This world's and the
next world's joys.
When cruel poverty
comes on, it deprives one of both the present and future (bliss).
which poverty men name,
Destroys both old
descent and goodly fame.
destroys at once the greatness of (one's) ancient descent and (the
dignity of one's) speech.
From penury will
spring, 'mid even those of noble race,
Oblivion that gives
birth to words that bring disgrace.
Even in those of high
birth, poverty will produce the fault of uttering mean words.
From poverty, that
The misery of poverty
brings in its train many (more) miseries.
sense, well understood, the poor man's words convey,
Their sense from
memory of mankind will fade away.
The words of the poor
are profitless, though they may be sound in thought and clear in
devoid of virtue's grace,
The mother e'en that
bare, estranged, will turn her face.
He that is reduced to
absolute poverty will be regarded as a stranger even by his own
And will it come
today as yesterday,
The grief of want
that eats my soul away?
Is the poverty that
almost killed me yesterday, to meet me today too ?
Amid the flames
sleep may men's eyelids close,
In poverty the eye
knows no repose.
One may sleep in the
midst of fire; but by no means in the midst of poverty.
Unless the destitute
will utterly themselves deny,
They cause their
neighbour's salt and vinegar to die.
The destitute poor, who
do not renounce their bodies, only consume their neighbour's salt
When those you find
from whom 'tis meet to ask,- for aid apply;
Theirs is the sin,
not yours, if they the gift deny.
If you meet with
those that may be begged of, you may beg; (but) if they withhold
(their gift) it is their blame and not yours.
Even to ask an alms
may pleasure give,
If what you ask
without annoyance you receive.
Even begging may be
pleasant, if what is begged for is obtained without grief (to him
The men who nought
deny, but know what's due, before their face
To stand as
suppliants affords especial grace.
There is even a
beauty in standing before and begging of those who are liberal in
their gifts and understand their duty (to beggars).
Like giving alms,
may even asking pleasant seem,
From men who of
denial never even dream.
To beg of such as
never think of withholding (their charity) even in their dreams, is
in fact the same as giving (it oneself);
Because on earth the
men exist, who never say them nay,
Men bear to stand
before their eyes for help to pray.
As there are in
the world those that give without refusing, there are (also) those
that prefer to beg by simply standing before them.
It those you find
from evil of 'denial' free,
At once all plague
of poverty will flee.
All the evil of begging
will be removed at the sight of those who are far from the evil of
If men are found who
give and no harsh words of scorn employ, The minds of askers,
through and through, will thrill with joy.
exceedingly when they behold those who bestow (their alms) with
kindness and courtesy.
If askers cease, the
mighty earth, where cooling fountains flow,
Will be a stage
where wooden puppets come and go.
If there were no
beggars, (the actions done in) the cool wide world would only
resemble the movement of a puppet.
What glory will there be
to men of generous soul,
When none are found to
love the askers' role?
What (praise) would
there be to givers (of alms) if there were no beggars to ask
for and receive (them).
Askers refused from
wrath must stand aloof;
The plague of
poverty itself is ample proof.
He who begs ought
not to be angry (at a refusal); for even the misery of (his own)
poverty should be a sufficient reason (for so doing).
2.4.12. The Dread of
Ten million-fold 'tis
greater gain, asking no alms to live,
Even from those,
like eyes in worth, who nought concealing gladly give.
Not to beg (at
all) even from those excellent persons who cheerfully give without
refusing, will do immense good.
If he that shaped
the world desires that men should begging go, Through life's long
course, let him a wanderer be and perish so.
If the Creator of
the world has decreed even begging as a means of livelihood, may he
too go abegging and perish.
Nothing is harder
than the hardness that will say,
'The plague of
penury by asking alms we'll drive away.'
There is no
greater folly than the boldness with which one seeks to remedy the
evils of poverty by begging (rather than by working).
Who ne'er consent to
beg in utmost need, their worth
Has excellence of
greatness that transcends the earth.
Even the whole
world cannot suficiently praise the dignity that would not beg even
in the midst of destitution.
Nothing is sweeter
than to taste the toil-won cheer,
Though mess of
pottage as tasteless as the water clear.
Even thin gruel is
ambrosia to him who has obtained it by labour.
E'en if a draught of
water for a cow you ask,
distasteful to the tongue as beggar's task.
There is nothing more
disgraceful to one's tongue than to use it in begging water even for
One thing I beg of
beggars all, 'If beg ye may,
Of those who hide
their wealth, beg not, I pray.'
I beseech all beggars
and say, "If you need to beg, never beg of those who give
The fragile bark of
Wrecked on denial's
rock will lie.
The unsafe raft of
begging will split when it strikes on the rock of refusal.
The heart will melt
away at thought of beggary,
With thought of
stern repulse 'twill perish utterly.
To think of (the
evil of) begging is enough to melt one's heart; but to think of
refusal is enough to break it.
E'en as he asks, the
shamefaced asker dies;
Where shall his
spirit hide who help denies?
Saying "No" to a
beggar takes away his life. (but as that very word will kill the
refuser) where then would the latter's life hide itself ?
The base resemble
men in outward form, I ween;
exact to them I've never seen.
The base resemble
men perfectly (as regards form); and we have not seen such (exact)
resemblance (among any other species).
Than those of
grateful heart the base must luckier be,
Their minds from
every anxious thought are free!
The low enjoy
more felicity than those who know what is good; for the former are
not troubled with anxiety (as to the good).
The base are as the
Gods; they too
Do ever what they
list to do!
The base resemble the
Gods; for the base act as they like.
When base men those
behold of conduct vile,
surpass them, and exulting smile.
The base feels proud
when he sees persons whose acts meaner than his own.
Fear is the base
man's virtue; if that fail,
Intense desire some
little may avail.
(The principle of)
behaviour in the mean is chiefly fear; if not, hope of gain, to some
The base are like
the beaten drum; for, when they hear
The sound the secret
out in every neighbour's ear.
The base are like a
drum that is beaten, for they unburden to others the secrets they
From off their
moistened hands no clinging grain they shake,
Unless to those with
clenched fist their jaws who break.
The mean will not
(even) shake of (what sticks to) their hands (soon after a meal) to
any but those who would break their jaws with their clenched fists.
The good to those
will profit yield fair words who use;
The base, like
sugar-cane, will profit those who bruise.
The great bestow
(their alms) as soon as they are informed; (but) the mean, like the
sugar-cane, only when they are tortured to death.
clothed and fed he see, the base Is mighty man some hidden fault to
The base will
bring an evil (accusation) against others, as soon as he sees them
(enjoying) good food and clothing.
For what is base man
fit, if griefs assail?
Himself to offer,
there and then, for sale!
The base will
hasten to sell themselves as soon as a calamity has befallen them.
For what else are they fitted ?
PART III. LOVE
3.1 . The Pre-marital
3.1. 1 Mental
Disturbance caused by the Beauty of the Princess
Goddess? or peafowl
rare? She whose ears rich jewels wear,
Is she a maid of
human kind? All wildered is my mind!
Is this jewelled female
a celestial, a choice peahen, or a human being ? My mind is
She of the beaming
eyes, To my rash look her glance replies,
As if the matchless
goddess' hand Led forth an armed band.
beauty returning my looks is like a celestial maiden coming with an
army to contend against me.
Death's form I
formerly Knew not; but now 'tis plain to me;
He comes in lovely
maiden's guise, With soul-subduing eyes.
I never knew
before what is called Yama; I see it now; it is the eyes that carry
on a great fight with (the help of) female qualities.
In sweet simplicity,
A woman's gracious form hath she;
But yet those eyes,
that drink my life, Are with the form at strife!
These eyes that
seem to kill those who look at them are as it were in hostilities
with this feminine simplicity.
The light that on me
gleams, Is it death's dart? or eye's bright beams?
Or fawn's shy
glance? All three appear In form of maiden here.
Is it Yama, (a pair of)
eyes or a hind ?- Are not all these three in the looks of this maid
If cruel eye-brow's
bow, Unbent, would veil those glances now;
The shafts that
wound this trembling heart Her eyes no more would dart.
Her eyes will
cause (me) no trembling sorrow, if they are properly hidden by her
cruel arched eye-brows.
As veil o'er angry
eyes Of raging elephant that lies,
cincture's folds invest This maiden's panting breast.
The cloth that
covers the firm bosom of this maiden is (like) that which covers the
eyes of a rutting elephant.
Ah! woe is me! my
might, That awed my foemen in the fight, By lustre of that beaming
brow Borne down, lies broken now!
On her bright
brow alone is destroyed even that power of mine that used to terrify
the most fearless foes in the battlefield.
Like tender fawn's
her eye; Clothed on is she with modesty;
What added beauty
can be lent; By alien ornament?
Of what use are other
jewels to her who is adorned with modesty, and the meek looks of a
The palm-tree's fragrant
wine, To those who taste yields joys divine; But love hath
rare felicity For those that only see!
Unlike boiled honey
which yields delight only when it is drunk, love give
spleasure even when looked at.
3.1.2. Recognition of
the Signs (of Mutual Love)
A double witchery
have glances of her liquid eye;
One glance is glance
that brings me pain; the other heals again.
There are two
looks in the dyed eyes of this (fair one); one causes pain, and the
other is the cure thereof.
The furtive glance,
that gleams one instant bright,
Is more than half of
love's supreme delight.
A single stolen glance
of her eyes is more than half the pleasure (of sexual embrace).
She looked, and
looking drooped her head: On springing shoot of love 'its water
She has looked
(at men) and stooped (her head); and that (sign) waters as it were
(the corn of) our love.
I look on her: her
eyes are on the ground the while:
I look away: she
looks on me with timid smile.
When I look, she looks
down; when I do not, she looks and smiles gently.
She seemed to see me
not; but yet the maid
Her love, by smiling
side-long glance, betrayed.
She not only avoids a
direct look at me, but looks as it were with a half-closed eye and
Though with their lips
affection they disown, Yet, when they hate us not, 'tis
Though they may speak
harshly as if they were strangers, the words of the friendly
are soon understood.
The slighting words
that anger feign, while eyes their love reveal.
Are signs of those
that love, but would their love conceal.
Little words that
are harsh and looks that are hateful are (but) the expressions of
lovers who wish to act like strangers.
I gaze, the tender
maid relents the while;
And, oh the
matchless grace of that soft smile!
When I look, the
pitying maid looks in return and smiles gently; and that is a
comforting sign for me.
indifferent, that would its love disguise,
Is only read aright
by lovers' eyes.
Both the lovers
are capable of looking at each other in an ordinary way, as if they
were perfect strangers.
When eye to answering
eye reveals the tale of love,
All words that lips
can say must useless prove.
The words of the
mouths are of no use whatever, when there is perfect agreement
between the eyes (of lovers).
3.1.3. Rejoicing in the
All joys that senses
five- sight, hearing, taste, smell, touch- can give,
In this resplendent
armlets-bearing damsel live!
(simultaneous) enjoyment of the five senses of sight, hearing,
taste, smell and touch can only be found with bright braceleted
Disease and medicine
antagonists we surely see;
This maid, to pain
she gives, herself is remedy.
The remedy for a
disease is always something diferent (from it); but for the disease
caused by this jewelled maid, she is herself the cure.
Than rest in her
soft arms to whom the soul is giv'n,
Is any sweeter joy
in his, the Lotus-eyed-one's heaven?
lotus-eyed Vishnu's heaven be indeed as sweet to those who delight
to sleep in the delicate arms of their beloved ?
Withdraw, it burns;
approach, it soothes the pain;
Whence did the maid
this wondrous fire obtain?
From whence has she got
this fire that burns when I withdraw and cools when I approach ?
In her embrace, whose
locks with flowery wreaths are bound,
Each varied form of joy
the soul can wish is found.
The shoulders of
her whose locks are adorned with flowers delight me as if they were
the very sweets I have desired (to get).
Ambrosia are the simple
maiden's arms; when I attain
Their touch, my
withered life puts forth its buds again!
The shoulders of
this fair one are made of ambrosia, for they revive me with pleasure
every time I embrace them.
As when one eats
from household store, with kindly grace
Sharing his meal:
such is this golden maid's embrace.
The embraces of a
gold-complexioned beautiful female are as pleasant as to dwell in
one's own house and live by one's own (earnings) after distributing
(a portion of it in charity).
Sweet is the strict
embrace of those whom fond affection binds,
Where no dissevering
breath of discord entrance finds.
To ardent lovers sweet
is the embrace that cannot be penetrated even by a breath of breeze.
variance, the healing of the strife, reunion gained:
These are the fruits
from wedded love obtained.
reconciliation and intercourse - these are the advantages reaped by
those who marry for lust.
The more men learn, the
more their lack of learning they detect;
'Tis so when I
approach the maid with gleaming jewels decked.
ignorance is discovered the more one learns, so does repeated
intercourse with a well-adorned female (only create a desire for
The Praise of her Beauty
O flower of the
sensitive plant! than thee
More tender's the
maiden beloved by me.
May you flourish, O
Anicham! you have a delicate nature. But my beloved is more delicate
You deemed, as you saw
the flowers, her eyes were as flowers, my soul,
That many may see;
it was surely some folly that over you stole!
O my soul,
fancying that flowers which are seen by many can resemble her eyes,
you become confused at the sight of them.
As tender shoot her
frame; teeth, pearls; around her odours blend; Darts are the eyes of
her whose shoulders like the bambu bend.
The complexion of
this bamboo-shouldered one is that of a shoot; her teeth, are
pearls; her breath, fragrance; and her dyed eyes, lances.
The lotus, seeing
her, with head demiss, the ground would eye,
And say, 'With eyes
of her, rich gems who wears, we cannot vie.'
If the blue lotus
could see, it would stoop and look at the ground saying, "I can
never resemble the eyes of this excellent jewelled one."
The flowers of the
sensitive plant as a girdle around her she placed;
The stems she forgot
to nip off; they 'll weigh down the delicate waist.
No merry drums
will be beaten for the (tender) waist of her who has adorned herself
with the anicham without having removed its stem.
The stars perplexed are
rushing wildly from their spheres;
For like another
moon this maiden's face appears.
The stars have
become confused in their places not being able to distinguish
between the moon and the maid's countenance.
In moon, that waxing
waning shines, as sports appear,
Are any spots
discerned in face of maiden here?
Could there be spots in
the face of this maid like those in the bright full moon ?
Farewell, O moon! If
that thine orb could shine
Bright as her face,
thou shouldst be love of mine.
If you can indeed shine
like the face of women, flourish, O moon, for then would you be
worth loving ?
If as her face,
whose eyes are flowers, thou wouldst have charms for me,
Shine for my eyes
alone, O moon, shine not for all to see!
O moon, if you
wish to resemble the face of her whose eyes are like (these)
flowers, do not appear so as to be seen by all.
The flower of the
sensitive plant, and the down on the swan's white breast,
As the thorn are
harsh, by the delicate feet of this maiden pressed.
The anicham and
the feathers of the swan are to the feet of females, like the fruit
of the (thorny) Nerunji.
3.1.5. Declaration of
Love's special Excellence
The dew on her white
teeth, whose voice is soft and low,
Is as when milk and
honey mingled flow.
The water which
oozes from the white teeth of this soft speeched damsel is like a
mixture of milk and honey.
Between this maid and
me the friendship kind
Is as the bonds that
soul and body bind.
The love between me and
this damsel is like the union of body and soul.
For her with
beauteous brow, the maid I love, there place is none;
To give her image
room, O pupil of mine eye, begone!
O you image in the
pupil (of my eye)! depart; there is no room for (my) fair-browed
Life is she to my
very soul when she draws nigh; Dissevered from the maid with jewels
rare, I die!
one resembles the living soul (when she is in union with me), the
dying soul when she leaves me.
I might recall, if I
could once forget; but from my heart
Her charms fade not,
whose eyes gleam like the warrior's dart.
If I had
forgotten her who has bright battling eyes, I would have remembered
(thee); but I never forget her. (Thus says he to her maid).
My loved one's subtle
form departs not from my eyes;
I wink them not,
lest I should pain him where he lies.
My lover would
not depart from mine eyes; even if I wink, he would not sufer (from
pain); he is so ethereal.
My love doth ever in
my eyes reside;
I stain them not,
fearing his form to hide.
As my lover abides in
my eyes, I will not even paint them, for he would (then) have to
Within my heart my
lover dwells; from food I turn
That smacks of heat,
lest he should feel it burn.
As my lover is in my
heart, I am afraid of eating (anything) hot, for I know it would
I fear his form to
hide, nor close my eyes:
'Her love estranged
is gone!' the village cries.
I will not wink,
knowing that if I did, my lover would hide himself; and for this
reason, this town says, he is unloving.
Rejoicing in my very
soul he ever lies;
'Her love estranged
is gone far off!' the village cries.
My lover dwells
in my heart with perpetual delight; but the town says he is unloving
and (therefore) dwells afar.
3.1.6. The Abandonment
To those who 've
proved love's joy, and now afflicted mourn,
Except the helpful
'horse of palm', no other strength remains.
To those who
after enjoyment of sexual pleasure suffer (for want of more), there
is no help so eficient as the palm yra horse.
My body and my soul,
that can no more endure,
Will lay reserve
aside, and mount the 'horse of palm'.
Having got rid of
shame, the sufering body and soul save themselves on the palm yra
I once retained
reserve and seemly manliness;
To-day I nought
possess but lovers' 'horse of palm'.
manliness were once my own; now, my own is the palmyra horse that is
ridden by the lustful.
Love's rushing tide
will sweep away the raft
Of seemly manliness
and shame combined.
The raft of modesty and
manliness, is, alas, carried-of by the strong current of lust.
The maid that
slender armlets wears, like flowers entwined,
Has brought me
'horse of palm,' and pangs of eventide!
She with the
small garland-like bracelets has given me the palmyra horse and the
sorrow that is endured at night.
Of climbing 'horse
of palm' in midnight hour, I think;
My eyes know no
repose for that same simple maid.
Mine eyes will
not close in sleep on your mistress's account; even at midnight will
I think of mounting the palm yra horse.
There's nought of
greater worth than woman's long-enduring soul, Who, vexed by love
like ocean waves, climbs not the 'horse of palm'.
There is nothing
so noble as the womanly nature that would not ride the palmyra
horse, though plunged a sea of lust.
In virtue hard to
move, yet very tender, too, are we;
Love deems not so,
would rend the veil, and court publicity!
Even the Lust (of
women) transgresses its secrecy and appears in public, forgetting
that they are too chaste and liberal (to be overcome by it).
'There's no one knows
my heart,' so says my love,
And thus, in public
ways, perturbed will rove.
My lust, feeling that
it is not known by all, reels confused in the streets (of this
Before my eyes the
foolish make a mock of me,
Because they ne'er
endured the pangs I now must drie.
Even strangers laugh
(at us) so as to be seen by us, for they have not suffered.
3.1.7. The Announcement
of the Rumour
By this same
rumour's rise, my precious life stands fast;
Good fortune grant
the many know this not!
My precious life is
saved by the raise of rumour, and this, to my good luck no others
are aware of.
The village hath to
us this rumour giv'n, that makes her mine;
Unweeting all the
rareness of the maid with flower-like eyne.
Not knowing the value
of her whose eyes are like flowers this town has got up a rumour
The rumour spread
within the town, is it not gain to me?
It is as though that
were obtained that may not be.
Will I not get a
rumour that is known to the (whole) town ? For what I have not got
is as if I had got it (already).
The rumour rising
makes my love to rise;
My love would lose
its power and languish otherwise.
Rumour increases the
violence of my passion; without it it would grow weak and waste
The more man drinks,
the more he ever drunk would be;
The more my love's
revealed, the sweeter 'tis to me!
liquor is delightful (to one) whenever one is in mirth, so is lust
delightful to me whenever it is the subject of rumour.
I saw him but one
single day: rumour spreads soon
As darkness, when
the dragon seizes on the moon.
It was but a
single day that I looked on (my lover); but the rumour thereof has
spread like the seizure of the moon by the serpent.
My anguish grows
apace: the town's report
Manures it; my
mother's word doth water it.
This malady (of
lust) is manured by the talk of women and watered by the (harsh)
words of my mother.
extinguish fire! 'Twill prove
Harder by scandal to
To say that one could
extinguish passion by rumour is like extinguishing fire with ghee.
When he who said
'Fear not!' hath left me blamed,
While many shrink,
can I from rumour hide ashamed?
departure of him who said "fear not" has put me to shame before
others, why need I be ashamed of scandal.
If we desire, who
loves will grant what we require;
This town sends
forth the rumour we desire!
The rumour I
desire is raised by the town (itself); and my lover would if desired
consent (to my following him).
3.2 The Post-marital
If you will say, 'I
leave thee not,' then tell me so;
Of quick return tell
those that can survive this woe.
If it is not departure,
tell me; but if it is your speedy return, tell it to those who would
be alive then.
It once was perfect
joy to look upon his face;
But now the fear of
parting saddens each embrace.
His very look was once
pleasing; but (now) even intercourse is painful through fear of
To trust henceforth
is hard, if ever he depart,
E'en he, who knows
his promise and my breaking heart.
As even the lover who
understands (everything) may at times depart, confidence is hardly
If he depart, who
fondly said, 'Fear not,' what blame's incurred
By those who trusted
to his reassuring word?
If he who
bestowed his love and said "fear not" should depart, will it be the
fault of those who believed in (his) assuring words ?
If you would guard
my life, from going him restrain
Who fills my life!
If he depart, hardly we meet again.
If you would save
(my life), delay the departure of my destined (husband); for if he
departs, intercourse will become impossible.
To cherish longing hope
that he should ever gracious be,
Is hard, when he could
stand, and of departure speak to me.
If he is so cruel
as to mention his departure (to me), the hope that he would bestow
(his love) must be given up.
slipping from my wrist announced before
Departure of the
Prince that rules the ocean shore.
Do not the rings that
begin to slide down my fingers forebode the separation of my lord ?
'Tis sad to sojourn
in the town where no kind kinsmen dwell;
'Tis sadder still to
bid a friend beloved farewell.
Painful is it to live
in a friendless town; but far more painful is it to part from one's
Fire burns the hands
that touch; but smart of love
Will burn in hearts
that far away remove.
Fire burns when
touched; but, like the sickness of love, can it also burn when
Sorrow's sadness meek
sustaining, Driving sore distress away,
uncomplaining Many bear the livelong day!
As if there were
many indeed that can consent to the impossible, kill their pain,
endure separation and yet continue to live afterwards.
I would my pain
conceal, but see! it surging swells,
As streams to those
that draw from ever-springing wells.
I would hide this pain
from others; but it (only) swells like a spring to those who drain
I cannot hide this pain
of mine, yet shame restrains
When I would tell it
out to him who caused my pains.
I cannot conceal this
pain, nor can I relate it without shame to him who has caused it.
My soul, like
porter's pole, within my wearied frame,
Sustains a two-fold
burthen poised, of love and shame.
(Both) lust and
shame, with my soul for their shoulder pole balance themselves on a
body that cannot bear them.
A sea of love, 'tis
true, I see stretched out before,
But not the trusty
bark that wafts to yonder shore.
There is indeed a flood
of lust; but there is no raft of safety to cross it with.
Who work us woe in
friendship's trustful hour,
What will they prove
when angry tempests lower?
He who can produce
sorrow from friendship, what can he not bring forth out of enmity ?
A happy love 's sea
of joy; but mightier sorrows roll From unpropitious love athwart the
The pleasure of lust is
(as great as) the sea; but the pain of lust is far greater.
I swim the cruel
tide of love, and can no shore descry,
In watches of the
night, too, 'mid the waters, only I!
I have swam
across the terrible flood of lust, but have not seen its shore; even
at midnight I am alone; still I live.
All living souls in
slumber soft she steeps;
But me alone kind
night for her companing keeps!
The night which
graciously lulls to sleep all living creatures, has me alone for her
More cruel than the
cruelty of him, the cruel one,
In these sad times
are lengthening hours of night I watch alone.
The long nights of
these days are far more cruel than the heartless one who is
When eye of mine
would as my soul go forth to him,
It knows not how
through floods of its own tears to swim.
Could mine eyes
travel like my thoughts to the abode (of my absent lord), they would
not swim in this flood of tears.
3.2.3. Eyes consumed
They showed me him,
and then my endless pain I saw: why then should weeping eyes
As this incurable
malady has been caused by my eyes which showed (him) to me, why
should they now weep for (him).
How glancing eyes, that
rash unweeting looked that day,
With sorrow measureless
are wasting now away!
The dyed eyes that
(then) looked without foresight, why should they now endure
sorrow, without feeling sharply (their own fault).
The eyes that threw
such eager glances round erewhile
Are weeping now.
Such folly surely claims a smile!
They themselves looked
eagerly (on him) and now they weep. Is not this to be laughed at ?
Those eyes have wept
till all the fount of tears is dry,
That brought upon me
pain that knows no remedy.
eyes have caused me a lasting mortal disease; and now they can weep
no more, the tears having dried up.
The eye that wrought
me more than sea could hold of woes,
Is suffering pangs
that banish all repose.
Mine eyes have
caused me a lust that is greater than the sea and (they themselves)
endure the torture of sleeplessness.
Oho! how sweet a
thing to see! the eye
That wrought this
pain, in the same gulf doth lie.
The eyes that
have given me this disease have themselves been seized with this
(sufering). Oh! I am much delighted.
Aching, aching, let
those exhaust their stream,
melting, that day gazed on him.
The eyes that
became tender and gazed intently on him, may they sufer so much as
to dry up the fountain of their tears.
Who loved me once,
onloving now doth here remain;
Not seeing him, my
eye no rest can gain.
He is indeed here
who loved me with his lips but not with his heart but mine eyes
sufer from not seeing him.
When he comes not,
all slumber flies; no sleep when he is there;
Thus every way my
eyes have troubles hard to bear.
When he is away
they do not sleep; when he is present they do not sleep; in either
case, mine eyes endure unbearable agony.
It is not hard for all
the town the knowledge to obtain,
When eyes, as mine,
like beaten tambours, make the mystery plain.
It is not
dificult for the people of this place to understand the secret of
those whose eyes, like mine, are as it were beaten drums.
3.2.4. The Pallid Hue
I willed my lover
absent should remain;
Of pining's sickly
hue to whom shall I complain?
I who (then)
consented to the absence of my loving lord, to whom can I (now)
relate the fact of my having turned sallow.
'He gave': this sickly
hue thus proudly speaks,
Then climbs, and all
my frame its chariot makes.
Sallowness, as if proud
of having been caused by him, would now ride on my person.
Of comeliness and
shame he me bereft,
While pain and
sickly hue, in recompense, he left.
He has taken (away) my
beauty and modesty, and given me instead disease and sallowness.
I meditate his
words, his worth is theme of all I say, This sickly hue is false
that would my trust betray.
I think (of him);
and what I speak about is but his excellence; still is there
sallowness; and this is deceitful.
My lover there went
forth to roam;
This pallor of my
frame usurps his place at home.
Just as my lover
departed then, did not sallowness spread here on my person ?
As darkness waits till
lamp expires, to fill the place,
This pallor waits
till I enjoy no more my lord's embrace.
Just as darkness
waits for the failing light; so does sallowness wait for the laxity
of my husband's intercourse.
I lay in his
embrace, I turned unwittingly;
Forthwith this hue,
as you might grasp it, came on me.
I who was in
close embrace just turned aside and the moment I did so, sallowness
came on me like something to be seized on.
On me, because I pine,
they cast a slur;
But no one says, 'He
first deserted her.'
Besides those who say
"she has turned sallow" there are none who say "he has forsaken
Well! let my frame,
as now, be sicklied o'er with pain,
If he who won my
heart's consent, in good estate remain!
If he is clear of
guilt who has conciliated me (to his departure) let my body sufer
its due and turn sallow.
'Tis well, though
men deride me for my sickly hue of pain;
If they from calling
him unkind, who won my love, refrain.
It would be good
to be said of me that I have turned sallow, if friends do not
reproach with unkindness him who pleased me (then).
3.2.5. The Solitary
The bliss to be
beloved by those they love who gains,
Of love the
stoneless, luscious fruit obtains.
The women who are
beloved by those whom they love, have they have not got the
stone-less fruit of sexual delight ?
As heaven on living
men showers blessings from above,
Is tender grace by
lovers shown to those they love.
The bestowal of
love by the beloved on those who love them is like the rain raining
(at the proper season) on those who live by it.
Who love and are
beloved to them alone
Belongs the boast,
'We've made life's very joys our own.'
The pride that says "we
shall live" suits only those who are loved by their beloved
will luckless prove,
Unless beloved by
those they love.
Even those who
are esteemed (by other women) are devoid of excellence, if they are
not loved by their beloved.
From him I love to
me what gain can be,
Unless, as I love
him, he loveth me?
He who is beloved by
me, what will he do to me, if I am not beloved by him ?
Love on one side is
bad; like balanced load By porter borne, love on both sides is good.
Lust, like the weight
of the KAVADI, pains if it lies in one end only but pleases if it is
While Kaman rushes
straight at me alone,
Is all my pain and
wasting grief unknown?
Would not cupid
who abides and contends in one party (only) witness the pain and
sorrow (in that party)?
Who hear from
lover's lips no pleasant word from day to day,
Yet in the world
live out their life,- no braver souls than they!
There is no one
in the world so hard-hearted as those who can live without receiving
(even) a kind word from their beloved.
Though he my heart
desires no grace accords to me, Yet every accent of his voice is
Though my beloved
bestows no love on one, still are his words sweet to my ears.
Tell him thy pain that loves not
Farewell, my soul, fill up the
Live, O my soul, would you who
relate your great to strangers, try rather to fill up your own
sorrow sea (of sorrow).
3.2.6. Sad Memories
From thought of her
unfailing gladness springs,
palm-rice wine the joy love brings.
Sexuality is sweeter
than liquor, because when remembered, it creates a most rapturous
How great is love!
Behold its sweetness past belief!
Think on the lover,
and the spirit knows no grief.
Even to think of one's
beloved gives one no pain. Sexuality, in any degree, is always
A fit of sneezing
threatened, but it passed away;
He seemed to think
of me, but do his fancies stray?
I feel as if I am
going to sneeze but do not, and (therefore) my beloved is about to
think (of me) but does not.
Have I a place
within his heart!
From mine, alas! he
never doth depart.
He continues to
abide in my soul, do I likewise abide in his ?
Me from his heart he
Hath he no shame who
ceaseless on my heart intrudes?
He who has imprisoned
me in his soul, is he ashamed to enter incessantly into mine.
How live I yet? I live
to ponder o'er
The days of bliss
with him that are no more.
I live by remembering
my (former) intercourse with him; if it were not so, how could I
If I remembered not
what were I then? And yet,
The fiery smart of
what my spirit knows not to forget!