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Home > Struggle for Tamil Eelam Conflict Resolution - Sri Lanka - Tamil Eelam > Centre for Just Peace and Democracy (CJPD) > International Seminar: Envisioning New Trajectories for Peace in Sri Lanka > Opening Remarks, Nadesan Satyendra, Adviser, Centre for Justice and Peace, Geneva > Opening Remarks, Dr. Norbert Ropers , Director, Berghof  Foundation, Colombo, Sri Lanka > Index of Seminar Papers > Index of Fact Sheets > List of Participants


International Seminar:
Envisioning New Trajectories for Peace in Sri Lanka

Zurich, Switzerland 7 - 9 April 2006

Organized by the Centre for Just Peace and Democracy (CJPD)
in collaboration with the Berghof Foundation, Sri Lanka

Index of Seminar Papers

Session 1: Causes of the Conflict & Factors leading to Ceasefire

The three basic insights in Conflict Transformation practice and theory are - address the root causes of conflict; do not indulge in the hierarchy of assigning blame on each other as to who did what to whom and acknowledge that in an asymmetric conflict, the recognition of the past is crucial for moving forward. It is also crucial to understand the factors leading to CFA and evaluate if they are still valid. 

Paper 1 - Prof. Jayadeva Uyangoda - Sri Lanka�s Ethnic Conflict: �Root Causes�
Paper 2 - Dr. Rajan Sriskandarajah - Sri Lanka: State of the country before the CFA
Paper 3- Prof. Sumanasiri Liyanage - What led to the Cessation of Hostilities?
Paper 4- Prof. A.J.V. Chandrakanthan - A Century of Sinhala-Tamil Conflict and Peace-making in Retrospect

Session 2: Analysis of CFA & its Implementation

This being the focal point of Geneva talks in February 2006 and its follow-up, it is essential now more than ever before. Has there been a change in the balance of power since 2001? (If it is no longer valid, then, what are the factors that may create equality?)

Paper 1 - Dr. Kumar Rupesinghe - Analysis of the Implementation of the Ceasefire Agreement
Paper 2 - Rev. A.I. Bernard - Analysis of the Ceasefire Agreement and its Implementation

Session 3: Tsunami Disaster Response - Politics of Aid � SIHRN- PTOMs

The basic assumption of the peace process in 2002/2003 was that the �politics of normalization� can build a bridge between the CFA and the core political issues. This however, has completely failed to take place, even in the case of the Tsunami response. 

Paper 1 Ms. Nimalka Fernando - Tsunami disaster response and its relevance for peace process
Paper 2 Prof. Georg Frerks - The Politics of Post-tsunami Reconstruction in War-torn Sri Lanka 
Paper 3 Mr. Ana Pararajasingham - The Failure of Joint Mechanisms � Causes, Consequences and Conclusions

Session 4: Dynamics of the Peace Process

One of the basic insights in the assessment of peace efforts in Sri Lanka has been the policy of �ethnic outbidding and out-maneuvering� used on the southern polity. Right now, there is a realignment of ethno-nationalistic forces. These in turn, have an impact on the dynamics within the Tamil and Muslim polity. Hence, to make progress, these internal dynamics and reinforcing tendencies, need to be addressed.

Paper 1 Dr. Jehan Perera - Southern Dynamics in Peace Process
Paper 2 Ms. Jezima Ismail - Why a Muslim Perspective to the Peace Process?
Paper 3 Mr. David Rampton - Nationalism in the Southern Polity and the 2002-2005 Peace Process
Paper 4 Hon. G.G. Ponnambalam MP - Northern Dynamics of the Peace Process

Session 5: Process Analysis of the Peace Process

Beyond internal dynamics, the other key factor would be the lack of interaction between the parties; the relationship between the GoSL and the LTTE 

Paper 1 Mr. Tyrol Ferdinands - Thoughts on Process
Paper 2 Prof. Kristian Stokke - State Formation and Political Change in LTTE-controlled Areas in Sri Lanka
Paper 3 Mr. Visuvanathan Rudrakumaran - LTTE�s Flexibility in the Current Peace Process

Session 6: Strategies of the Parties in the Peace Process - Net impact for the people

Two main topics were highlighted in this session: The factors that led to the lack of a tangible peace dividend for the people and the broader strategies pursued by the negotiating parties to maximize their BATNA (Best Alternative to Negotiated Agreement) 

Paper 1 Prof. Vijitha Nanayakara - Strategies of the Parties in the Peace Process � Net impact for the People
Paper 2 Prof. Peter Schalk - War of Words - An Obstacle to Peace
Paper 3 Prof. Palanisamy Ramasamy - Strategies for Peace: Comparing Acheh with Sri Lanka
Paper 4 Mr. Brian Smith - Strategies of Parties in the Peace Process and Net Impact for the People

Session 7: International Frame - Norway as facilitator -
Regional factors - Concept of Co-chairs - Politics of Sanctions and Incentives

The �international� component of the peace process is of significant importance, especially given the discourse that the peace process is being �over-internationalized�. With the creation of an �international safety net�, the international community is perceived to be another stakeholder to the conflict in Sri Lanka. Moreover, the international component encompasses the involvement of Norway as the facilitator, the role of the co-chairs, the regional factors and the ensuing politics of sanctions and incentives.  

Paper 1 Mr. Viraj Mendis - Building a genuine pro-peace tendency in the �international community� regarding Sri Lanka
Paper 2 Mr. M.H.M. Salman - The Muslim Perspective
Paper 3 Dr. Jonathan Goodhand - Internationalization of the Peace Process
Paper 4 Ms.Vinothiny Kanapathippillai - Too much, too fast or a peace trap?

Session 8: Re-envisioning Sri Lanka - Lessons-learned & Challenges and Opportunities

The Seminar  examined the lessons learned and explored the challenges and opportunities that lay ahead. Among the matters discussed was the question whether a resolution of the conflict may be secured by 

a. an unitary constitution with extensive devolution; or
b. a federal constitution with a thick framework of power sharing; or
c. a confederation of states; or
d. an association of states on the lines of the European Union 

The Seminar recognized the historical nature of the Ceasefire Agreement concluded between Sri Lanka and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam in February 2002 and the international recognition accorded to the Ceasefire Agreement.  The Seminar was mindful that legal frameworks directed to resolve the conflict will need to accord with the political reality on the ground and take into account the national identities of the peoples in the island, their aspirations as peoples and more importantly their fears and concerns. 

Paper 1 Prof. John P Neelsen - New Trajectories for Peace in Sri Lanka - Re-Envisioning Sri Lanka 
Paper 2 Dr. Jayampathy Wickramaratne - Re-envisioning Sri Lanka
Paper 3 Mr. Suthaharan Nadarajah - Re-envisioning Sri Lanka: the present, not the past matters most
Paper 4 Prof. M. Sornarajah - Envisioning Sri Lanka
Paper 5 Ms. Karen Parker - Re-Envisioning Sri Lanka
Paper 6 Prof. Navaratna Bandara - The Peace Process of  2002-2005 - Lessons learned, challenges and opportunities
Paper 7 Mr.Victor Ivan - The Crisis of the State of Sri Lanka calls for a Re-creation of the State rather than Adhoc Reforms
Paper 8 Dr. Sachithanandam Sathananthan - Re-envisioning Sri Lanka: ways forward and breaking the dead-lock
Paper 9 Dr.Brian Senewiratne  - Trajectories for Peace in Sri Lanka
Paper 10 Mr. Vasu Gounden - Ways Forward & Breaking the Deadlock
Paper 11 Dr.Roshan de Silva Wijeratne - States of Mind and States of History: The Future in Sri Lanka Can Be Decentered
Paper 12 Ms.Madura Rasaratnam - Re-envisioning Sri Lanka�s Ethno-Nationalisms
Additional Short Papers on �Re-envisioning Sri Lanka - Way Forward by 1.Father A.I. Bernard, 2. Professor Joseph Chandrakanthan, 3.Mr. Victor Ivan, 4.Mr.Ana Pararajasingham, 5.Dr.Jehan Perera, 6.Hon. G.G. Ponnampalam MP, 7.Mr.David Rampton, 8.Mr.Brian Smith, 9.Prof. Kristian Stokke and 10 Prof. Jayadeva Uyangoda. (in alphabetical order)



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