The year 2000 showed that terrorism continues to pose a clear and present
danger to the international community. From the millennium-related threats
at the beginning of the year to the USS Cole bombing and the rash of hostage
takings at the end, the year 2000 highlighted the need for continued
vigilance by our government and our allies throughout the world. The tragic
death of 19 US citizens at the hands of terrorists is the most sober
While the threat continues, 2000 saw the international community's
commitment to counter terrorism cooperation and ability to mobilize its
resources grow stronger than ever. As a result, state-sponsored terrorism
has continued to decline, international isolation of terrorist groups and
countries has increased, and terrorists are being brought to justice.
Indeed, the vigilance of all members of the international community is
critical to limiting the mobility and capability of terrorists throughout
the world, and both we and the terrorists know it.
We base our cooperation with our international partners on four basic
- First, make no concession to terrorists and strike no deals.
- Second, bring terrorists to justice for their crimes.
- Third, isolate and apply pressure on states that sponsor
terrorism to force them to change their behavior.
- Fourth, bolster the counter terrorist capabilities of those
countries that work with the United States and require assistance.
These points have been the basis for international cooperation and the
foundation for important progress.....
.... In Sri Lanka, the government continued its 17-year conflict with the
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), which engaged in several terrorist acts
against government and civilian targets during the year...
The separatist group the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) -
re designated as a Foreign Terrorist Organization in 1999 - remained violent
in 2000, engaging in several terrorist
acts against government and civilian targets. LTTE attacks, including those
involving suicide bombers, killed more than 100 persons, including Minister of
Industrial Development Goonaratne, and wounded dozens. Two US citizens and a
British national were apparent incidental victims of the group in October, when
an LTTE suicide bomber cornered by the police detonated his bomb near the Town
Hall in Colombo. The LTTE continued to strike civilian shipping in Sri Lanka,
conducting a naval suicide bombing of a merchant vessel and hijacking a Russian
in the north between the Tigers and the Sri Lankan Government continued,
although by year's end
the government had re-taken 70 percent of the Jaffna Peninsula. The
Government of Norway initiated efforts to broker peace between the two parties
and may have contributed to an
LTTE decision to announce unilaterally a cease-fire in December.
terrorist acts have been attributed to other domestic Sri Lankan groups.
Suspected Sinhalese extremists protesting
Norway's peace efforts
used small improvised explosive devices to attack the Norwegian-run charity Save
the Children as well as the Norwegian Embassy. Sinhalese extremists also are
suspected of assassinating pro-LTTE politician
G. G. Kumar Ponnambalam, Jr., in January.
Appendix A: Chronology of
Significant Terrorist Incidents, 2000
19 October 2000
In Colombo, a suicide bomber detonated the explosives he was wearing near
the town hall, killing four persons and wounding 23 others, including two US
citizens, according to press reports. The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam
(LTTE) were probably responsible.
Appendix B: Background
Information on Terrorist Groups
The following descriptive list of terrorist groups is presented in two
sections. The first section lists the 29 groups that currently are
designated by the Secretary of State as Foreign Terrorist Organizations
(FTOs), pursuant to section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as
amended by the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996. The
designations carry legal consequences:
- It is unlawful to provide funds or other material support to a
- Representatives and certain members of a designated FTO can be denied
visas or excluded from the United States.
- US financial institutions must block funds of designated FTOs and their
agents and must report the blockage to the US Department of the Treasury.
The second section includes other terrorist groups that were active during
2000. Terrorist groups whose activities were limited in scope in 2000 are
I. Designated Foreign Terrorist Organizations
|Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)
Other known front organizations: World Tamil Association (WTA),
World Tamil Movement (WTM), the Federation of Associations of
Canadian Tamils (FACT), the Ellalan Force, the Sangilian Force.
Founded in 1976, the LTTE is the most powerful Tamil group in Sri
Lanka and uses overt and illegal methods to raise funds, acquire
weapons, and publicize its cause of establishing an independent
Tamil state. The LTTE began its armed conflict with the Sri Lankan
Government in 1983 and relies on a guerrilla strategy that includes
the use of terrorist tactics.
The Tigers have integrated a battlefield insurgent strategy with
a terrorist program that targets not only key personnel in the
countryside but also senior Sri Lankan political and military
leaders in Colombo and other urban centers. The Tigers are most
notorious for their cadre of suicide bombers, the Black Tigers.
Political assassinations and bombings are commonplace. The LTTE has
refrained from targeting foreign diplomatic and commercial
Exact strength is unknown, but the LTTE is estimated to have
8,000 to 10,000 armed combatants in Sri Lanka, with a core of
trained fighters of approximately 3,000 to 6,000. The LTTE also has
a significant overseas support structure for fundraising, weapons
procurement, and propaganda activities.
Location/Area of Operations
The Tigers control most of the northern and eastern coastal areas of
Sri Lanka but have conducted operations throughout the island.
Headquartered in northern Sri Lanka, LTTE leader Velupillai
Prabhakaran has established an extensive network of checkpoints and
informants to keep track of any outsiders who enter the group's area
The LTTE's overt organizations support Tamil separatism by
lobbying foreign governments and the United Nations. The LTTE also
uses its international contacts to procure weapons, communications,
and any other equipment and supplies it needs. The LTTE exploits
large Tamil communities in North America, Europe, and Asia to obtain
funds and supplies for its fighters in Sri Lanka.
obtained since the mid-1980s indicates that some Tamil communities
in Europe are also involved in narcotics smuggling.
historically have served as drug couriers moving narcotics into