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Terrorism: Indian Law & Practise
The Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967
1. (1) Short title and extent. This Act may be called the
Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967.
1*[(g) "unlawful association" means any association-
2*[2A.Construction of reference to laws not in force in Jammu
and Kashmir. Any reference in this Act to a law which is not in force in the
"State of Jammu and Kashmir shall, in relation to that State, be construed as a
reference to the corresponding law, if any, in force in that State.]
3. Declaration of an association as unlawful
(1) If the Central Government is of opinion that any association is, or has become, an unlawful association, it may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare such association to be unlawful.
(2) Every such notification shall specify the grounds on which it is issued and such other particulars as the Central Government may consider necessary: Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall require the Central Government to disclose any fact which it considers to be against the public interest to disclose.
(3) No such notification shall have effect until the Tribunal has, by an order made under section 4, confirmed the declaration made therein and the order is published in the Official Gazette: Provided that if the Central Government is of opinion that circumstances exist which render it necessary for that Government to declare an association to be unlawful with immediate effect, it may,
for reasons to be stated in writing, direct that the notification shall, subject to any order that may be made under section 4, have effect from the date of its publication in the Official Gazette.
(4) Every such notification shall, in addition to its
publication in the Official Gazette, be published in not less than one daily
newspaper having circulation in the State in which the principal office, if any,
of the association affected is situated, and shall also be served on such
association in such manner as the Central Government may think fit and all or
any of the following modes may be followed in effecting such service, namely:-
(a) by affixing a copy of the notification to some conspicuous part of the
office, if any, of the association ; or (b) by serving a copy of the
notification, where possible, on the principal office-bearers, if any, of the
association ; or (c) by proclaiming by beat of drum or by means of loudspeakers,
the contents of the notification in the area in which the activities of the
association are ordinarily carried on ; or (d) in such other manner as may be
(1) Where any association has been declared unlawful by a notification issued under sub-section (1) of section 3, the Central Government shall, within thirty days from the date of the publication of the notification under the said sub- section, refer the notification to the Tribunal for the purpose of adjudicating whether or not there is sufficient cause for declaring the association unlawful.
(2) On receipt of a reference under sub-section (1), the Tribunal shall call upon the association affected by notice in writing to show cause, within thirty days from the date of the service of such notice, why the association should not be declared unlawful.
(3) After considering the cause, if any, shown by the association or the office-bearers or members thereof, the-Tribunal shall hold an inquiry in the manner specified in section 9 and after calling for such further information as it may consider necessary from the Central Government or from any office-bearer or member of the association, it shall decide whether or not there is sufficient cause for declaring the association to be unlawful and make, as expeditiously as possible and in any case within a period of six months from the date of the issue of the notification under sub-section (1) of section 3, such order as it may deem fit either confirming the declaration made in notification or cancelling the same.
(4) The order of the Tribunal made under sub-section (3) shall
be published in the Official Gazette.
(1) The Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, constitute, as and when necessary, a tribunal to be known as the "Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Tribunal" consisting of one person, to be appointed by the Central Government: Provided that no person shall be so appointed unless he is a Judge of a High Court.
(2) If, for any reason, a vacancy (other than a temporary ab- sence) occurs in the office of the presiding officer of the Tribunal, then, the Central Government shall appoint another person in accordance with the provisions of this section to fill the vacancy and the proceedings may be continued before the Tribunal from the stage at which the vacancy is filled.
(3) The Central Government shall make available to the Tribunal such staff as may be necessary for the discharge of its functions under this Act.
(4) All expenses incurred in connection with the Tribunal shall be defrayed out of the Consolidated Fund of India.
(5) Subject to the provisions of section 9, the Tribunal shall have power to regulate its own procedure in all matters arising out of the discharge of its functions including the place or places at which it will hold its sittings.
(6) The Tribunal shall, for the purpose of making an inquiry under this Act, have the same powers as are vested in a civil court under the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (5 of 1908), while trying a suit, in respect of the following matters, namely:- (a) the summoning and enforcing the attendance of any witness and examining him on oath; (b) the discovery and production of any document or other material object producible as evidence; (c) the reception of evidence on affidavits; (d) the requisitioning of any public record from any court or office ; (e) the issuing of any commission for the examination of witnesses.
(7) Any proceeding before the Tribunal shall be deemed to be a
judicial proceeding within the meaning of sections 193 and 228 of 767 the Indian
Penal Code (45 of 1860) and the Tribunal shall be deemed to be a civil court for
the purposes of section 195 and Chapter XXXV of the Code of Criminal Procedure,
1898 (5 of 1898).
(1) Where an association has been declared unlawful by a notification issued under section 3 which has become effective under sub-section (3) of that section and the Central Government is satis- fied, after such inquiry as it may think fit, that any person has custody of any moneys, securities or credits which are being used or are intended to be used for the purpose of the unlawful association, the Central Government may, by order in writing, prohibit such person from paying, delivering, transferring or otherwise dealing in any manner whatsoever with such moneys, securities or credits or with any other moneys, securities or credits which may come into his custody after the making of the order, save in accordance with the written orders of the Central Government and a copy of such order shall be served upon the person so prohibited in the manner specified in sub- section (3).
(2) The Central Government may endorse a copy of the prohibitory order made under sub-section (1) for investigation to any gazetted officer of the Government it may select, and such copy shall be a warrant whereunder such officer may enter in or upon any premises of the person to whom the order is directed, examine the books of such person, search for moneys, securities or credits, and make inquiries from such person or any officer, agent or servant of such person, touching the origin of any dealings in any moneys, securities or credits which the investigating officer may suspect are being used or are intended to be used for the purpose of the unlawful association.
(3) A copy of an order made under this section shall be served in the manner provided in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1898 (5of 1898), for 768 the service of a summons, or, where the person to be served is a corporation, company, bank or other association, it shall be served on any secretary, director or other officer or person concerned with the management thereof, or by leaving it or sending it by post addressed to the corporation, company, bank or other association at its registered office, or where there is no registered office, at the place where it carries on business.
(4)Any person aggrieved by a prohibitory order made under sub- section (1) may, within fifteen days from the date of the service of such order, make an application to the Court of the District Judge within the local limits of whose jurisdiction such person voluntarily resides or carries on business or personally works for gain, to establish that the moneys, securities or credits in respect of which the prohibitory order has been made are not being used or are not intended to be used for the purpose of the unlawful association and the Court of the District Judge shall decide the question.
(5)Except so far as is necessary for the purposes of any pro- ceedings under this section, no information obtained in the course of any investigation made under sub-section (2) shall be divulged by any gazetted officer of the Government, without the consent of the Central Government.
(6)In this section, "security" includes a document whereby any
person acknowledges that he is under a legal liability to pay money, or
whereunder any person obtains a legal right to the payment of money.
(1) Where an association has been declared unlawful by a notification issued under section 3 which has become effective under sub-section (3) of that section, the Central Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, notify any place which in its opinion is used for the purpose of such unlawful association. Explanation.-For the purposes of this sub-section, "place" includes a house or building, or part thereof, or a tent or vessel.
(2)On the issue of a notification under sub-section (1), the District Magistrate within the local limits of whose jurisdiction such notified place is situate or any officer authorised by him in 'writing in this behalf shall make a list of all movable properties (other than wearing-apparel, cooking vessels, beds and beddings, tools of artisans, implements of husbandry, cattle, grain and foodstuffs and such other articles as he considers to be of a trivial nature) found in the notified place in the presence of two respectable witnesses. 769
(3) If, in the opinion of the District Magistrate, any articles specified in the list are or may be used for the purpose of the unlaw- ful association he may make an order prohibiting any person from using the articles save in accordance with the written orders of the District Magistrate.
(4) The District Magistrate may thereupon make an order that no person who at the date of the notification was not a resident in the notified place shall, without the permission of the District Magistrate, enter, or be on or in, the notified place : Provided that nothing in this sub-section shall apply to any near relative of any person who was a resident in the notified place at the date of the notification.
(5) Where in pursuance of sub-section (4), any person is granted permission to enter, or to be on or in, the notified place, that person shall, while acting under such permission, comply with such orders for regulating his conduct as may be given by the District Magistrate.
(6) Any police officer, not below the rank of a sub-inspector, or any other person authorised in this behalf by the Central Govern- ment may search any person entering, or seeking to enter, or being on or in, the notified place and may detain any such person for the purpose of searching him: Provided that no female shall be searched in pursuance of this sub-section except by a female.
(7) If any person is in the notified place in contravention of an order made under sub-section (4), then, without prejudice to any other proceedings which may be taken against him, he may be removed therefrom by any officer or by any other person authorised in this behalf by the Central Government.
(8) Any person aggrieved by a notification issued in respect of
a place under sub-section (1) or by an order made under sub-section (3) or
sub-section (4) may, within thirty days from the date of the notification or
order, as the case may be,, make an application to the Court of the District
Judge within the local limits of whose jurisdic- tion such notified place is
situate- (a) for declaration that the place has not been used for the purpose of
the unlawful association ; or (b) for setting aside the order made under
sub-section (3) or sub-section (4), 770 and on receipt of the application the
Court of the District Judge shall, after giving the parties an opportunity of
being heard, decide the question.
10. Penalty for being members of an unlawful association.
Whoever is and continues to be a member of an association declared unlawful by a
notification issued under section 3 which has become effective under sub-section
(3) of that section, or takes part in meetings of any such unlawful association,
or contributes to, or receives or solicits any contribution for the purpose of,
any such un- lawful association, or in any way assists the operations of any
such unlawful association, shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term
which may extend to two years, and shall also be liable to fine.
15. Continuance of association. An association shall not be deemed to have ceased to exist by reason only of any formal act of its dissolution or change of name but shall be deemed to continue so long as any actual combination for the purposes of such association continues between any members thereof.