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Life's good comes not from others' gift, nor ill
Man's pains and pains' relief are from within.
Thus have we seen in visions of the wise !."
Tamil Poem in Purananuru, circa 500 B.C 

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Home > Self Determination: Principle & the Law> Implementation of Declaration on the Strengthening of International Security, 1984

UN General Assembly Resolution on Implementation  
of the Declaration on the Strengthening of International Security

  A/RES/39/155 - 17 December 1984 

The General Assembly,

Having considered the item entitled "Review of the implementation of the Declaration on the Strengthening of International Security",

Noting with concern that the provisions of the Declaration on the Strengthening of International Security have not been fully implemented,

Noting further with concern that the United Nations system of collective security has not been used effectively,

Recalling the duty of States not to intervene in the internal or external affairs of any State, in accordance with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations,

Recalling the provisions of the Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations,

Noting the provisions of the Declaration on the Inadmissibility of Intervention and Interference in the Internal Affairs of States,

Recalling the Manila Declaration on the Peaceful Settlement of International Disputes,

Alarmed by increasing tensions in international relations and the heightened confrontations that characterize the relations between the great Powers, accompanied by the policy of competition for spheres of influence, domination and exploitation in more and more parts of the world, the escalation to new levels of the arms race, particularly in nuclear weapons and the danger of its extension into outer space, all of which pose a grave threat to global peace and security,

Profoundly disturbed by the increasing recourse to the use or threat of use of force, military intervention and interference, aggression and foreign occupation, by the aggravation of existing crises in the world and the outbreak of new ones, by the continued infringement of the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of countries, by the denial of the right to self-determination of peoples under colonial and foreign occupation and by attempts to characterize erroneously the struggles of peoples for independence and human dignity as falling within the context of East-West confrontation, thus denying them the right to self- determination, to decide their own destiny and realize their legitimate aspirations, by the persistence of colonialism, racism and apartheid supported by the growing use of military force, by the intensification and expansion of the scope and frequency of manoeuvres and other military activities conceived within the context of big-Power confrontation and used as means of pressure, threat and destabilization, and by the lack of solutions to the world economic crisis in which the deeper underlying problems of a structural nature have been compounded by cyclical factors and which has further aggravated the inequalities and injustices in international economic relations,

Aware of the increasing interdependence among nations and of the fact that in the present-day world there is no alternative to a policy of peaceful coexistence, detente and co-operation among States on the basis of equality, irrespective of their economic or military power, political and social systems or size and geographic location,

Stressing the need for the main organs of the United Nations responsible for the maintenance of peace and security, particularly the Security Council, to contribute more effectively to the promotion of international peace and security by seeking solutions to unresolved problems and crises in the world,

Bearing in mind that the year 1985 will mark four decades since the United Nations was established on the conclusion of the Second World War, which had brought untold sorrow to mankind, and should provide an occasion to review the performance of the United Nations system over the past four decades with a view to enhancing its role and effectiveness towards the achievement of peace, security, justice and development,

Urging all States to take effective measures during the year of the fortieth anniversary of the United Nations to contribute towards the amelioration of international political and economic relations in the interest of lasting world peace and the progress of mankind,

Noting that the year 1985 will also mark the fifteenth anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration on the Strengthening of International Security,

1. Reaffirms the validity of the Declaration on the Strengthening of International Security and calls upon all States to contribute effectively to its implementation;

2. Urges once again all States to abide strictly, in their international relations, by their commitment to the Charter of the United Nations and, to this end:

(a) To refrain from the use or threat of use of force, intervention, interference, aggression, foreign occupation and colonial domination or measures of political and economic coercion which violate the sovereignty, territorial integrity, independence and security of other States as well as the permanent sovereignty of peoples over their natural resources;

(b) To refrain from supporting or encouraging any such act for any reason whatsoever and to reject and refuse recognition of situations brought about by any such act;

3. Calls upon all States, in particular the nuclear-weapon States and other militarily significant States, to take immediate steps aimed at:

(a) Promoting and using effectively the system of collective security as envisaged in the Charter;

(b) Halting effectively the arms race and achieving general and complete disarmament under effective international control and, to this end, to start serious, meaningful and effective negotiations with a view to implementing the recommendations and decisions contained in the Final Document of the Tenth Special Session of the General Assembly, the first special session devoted to disarmament, and to fulfilling the priority tasks listed in its Programme of Action set forth in section III of the Final Document;

4. Invites all States, in particular the major military Powers and States members of military alliances, to refrain, especially in critical situations and in crisis areas, from actions, including military activities and manoeuvres conceived within the context of big-Power confrontation and used as a means of pressure on, threat to and destabilization of other States and regions;

5. Urges all States, in particular the permanent members of the Security Council, to take all necessary measures to prevent the further deterioration of the international situation and, to this end:

(a) To seek, through more effective utilization of the means provided for in the Charter, the peaceful settlement of disputes and the elimination of the focal points of crisis and tension which constitute a threat to international peace and security;

(b) To proceed without delay to a global consideration of ways and means for bringing about a revival of the world economy and for the restructuring of international economic relations within the framework of the global negotiations with a view to establishing the new international economic order;

(c) To accelerate the economic development of developing countries, particularly the least developed ones;

(d) To implement urgently measures agreed upon to ameliorate the critical economic situation in Africa which is the result, inter alia, of persistent inclement climatic factors;

6. Calls upon all States, particularly the members of the Security Council, to take appropriate and effective measures to promote the fulfilment of the objective of the denuclearization of Africa in order to avert the serious danger which the nuclear capability of South Africa constitutes to the African States, in particular the front-line States, as well as to international peace and security;

7. Emphasizes the role that the United Nations has in the maintenance of peace and security and in economic and social development and progress for the benefit of all mankind;

8. Reiterates that the current deterioration of the international situation requires an effective Security Council and, to that end, emphasizes the need to examine mechanisms and working methods on a continued basis in order to enhance the authority and enforcement capacity of the Council, in accordance with the Charter;

9. Emphasizes that the Security Council should consider holding periodic meetings in specific cases to consider and review outstanding problems and crises, thus enabling the Council to play a more active role in preventing conflicts;

10. Reiterates the need for the Security Council, in particular its permanent members, to ensure the effective implementation of its decisions in compliance with the relevant provisions of the Charter;

11. Considers that respect for and promotion of human rights and fundamental freedoms in their civil, political, economic, social and cultural aspects, on the one hand, and the strengthening of international peace and security, on the other, mutually reinforce each other;

12. Reaffirms the legitimacy of the struggle of peoples under colonial domination, foreign occupation or racist regimes and their inalienable right to self-determination and independence, and urges Member States to increase their support for and solidarity with them and their national liberation movements and to take urgent and effective measures for the speedy completion of the implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples and for the final elimination of colonialism, racism and apartheid;

13. Welcomes the continuation of the process within the framework of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe and expresses the hope that the Stockholm Conference on Confidence- and Security-building Measures and Disarmament in Europe, the continent with the greatest concentration of armaments and military forces, will achieve significant and positive results;

14. Reiterates its call upon great Powers to abandon policies of confrontation which have hitherto given rise to tension and mistrust and to engage without any further delay in genuine and constructive negotiations in good faith, taking into account the interests of the entire international community;

15. Reaffirms that the democratization of international relations is an imperative necessity enabling, under the conditions of interdependence, the full development and independence of all States as well as the attainment of genuine security, peace and co-operation in the world, and stresses its firm belief that the United Nations offers the best framework for the promotion of these goals;

16. Invites Member States to submit their views on the question of the implementation of the Declaration on the Strengthening of International Security, and requests the Secretary-General to submit a report to the General Assembly at its fortieth session on the basis of the replies received;

17. Decides to include in the provisional agenda of its fortieth session the item entitled "Review of the implementation of the Declaration on the Strengthening of International Security".


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