CONSIDERING that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter
of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and
inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of
freedom, justice and peace in the world,
RECOGNIZING that these rights derive from the inherent dignity of the human
RECOGNIZING that, in accordance with the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights, the ideal of free human beings enjoying civil and political freedom and
freedom from fear and want can only be achieved if conditions are created
whereby everyone may enjoy his civil and political rights, as well as his
economic, social and cultural rights,
CONSIDERING the obligation of States under the Charter of the United Nations
to promote universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and freedoms,
REALIZING that the individual, having duties to other individuals and the
community to which he belongs, is under a responsibility to strive for the
promotion and observance of the rights recognized in the present Covenant,
(1) All peoples have the right of self-determination. By virtue of that
right they freely determine their political status and freely pursue their
economic, social and cultural development.
(2) All peoples may, for their own ends, freely dispose of their natural
wealth and resources without prejudice to any obligations arising out of
international economic co-operation, based upon the principle of mutual
benefit, and international law. In no case may a people be deprived of its
own means of subsistence.
(3) The States Parties to the present Covenant, including those having
responsibility of the administration of Non-Self-Governing and Trust
Territories, shall promote the realization of the right of self-
determination, and shall respect that right, in conformity with the
provisions of the Charter of the United Nations.
(1) Each State Party to the present Covenant undertakes to respect and to
ensure to all individuals within its territory and subject to its
jurisdiction the rights recognized in the present Covenant, without
distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion,
political or other opinion, national or social origin, birth or other
(2) Where not already provided for by existing legislative or other
measures, each State Party to the Present Covenant undertakes to take the
necessary steps, in accordance with its constitutional processes and with
the provisions of the present Covenant, to adopt such legislative or other
measures as may be necessary to give effect to the rights recognized in the
(3) Each State Party to the Present Covenant undertakes:
(a) To ensure that any person whose rights or freedoms as herein recognized
are violated shall have an effective remedy, notwithstanding that the
violation may have been committed by persons acting in an official capacity;
(b) To ensure that any person claiming such a remedy shall have his right
thereto determined by competent judicial, administrative or legislative
authorities, or by any other competent authority provided for by the legal
system of the State, and to develop the possibilities of judicial remedy;
(c) To ensure that the competent authorities shall enforce such remedies
The States Parties to the Present Covenant undertake to ensure the equal
rights of men and women to the enjoyment of all civil and political rights
set forth in the present Covenant.
(1) In time of public emergency which threatens the life of the nation and
the existence of which is officially proclaimed, the States Parties to the
present Covenant may take measures derogating from their obligations under
the present Covenant to the extent strictly required by the exigencies of
the situation, provided that such measures are not inconsistent with their
other obligations under international law and do not involve discrimination
solely on the ground of race, colour, sex, language, religion or social
(2) No derogation from articles 6, 7, 8 (paragraphs 1 and 2), 11, 15, 16
and 18 may be made under this provision.
(3) Any State Party to the Present Covenant availing itself to the right of
derogation shall immediately inform the other States Parties to the Present
Covenant, through the intermediary of the Secretary-General of the United
Nations, of the provisions from which it has derogated and of the reasons by
which it was actuated. A further communication shall be made, through the
same intermediary, on the date on which it terminates such derogation.
(1) Nothing in the present Covenant may be interpreted as implying for any
State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or perform any
act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms recognized
herein or at their limitation to a greater extent than is provided for in
the present Covenant.
(2) There shall be no restriction upon or derogation from any of the
fundamental human rights recognized or existing in any State Party to the
Present Covenant pursuant to law, conventions, regulations or custom on the
pretext that the present Covenant does not recognize such rights or that it
recognizes them to a lesser extent.
(1) Every human being has the inherent right to life. This right shall be
protected by law. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his life.
(2) In countries which have not abolished the death penalty, sentence of
death may only be imposed for the most serious crimes in accordance with the
law in force at the time of the commission of the crime and not contrary to
the provisions of the present Covenant and to the Convention on the
Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. This penalty can only be
carried out pursuant to a final judgement rendered by a competent court.
(3) When deprivation of life constitutes the crime of genocide, it is
understood that nothing in this article shall authorize any State Party to
the Present Covenant to derogate in any way from any obligation assumed
under the provisions of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of
the Crime of Genocide.
(4) Anyone sentenced to death shall have the right to seek pardon or
commutation of the sentence. Amnesty, pardon or commutation of the sentence
of death shall be granted in all cases.
(5) Sentence of death shall not be imposed for crimes committed by persons
below eighteen years of age and shall not be carried out on pregnant women.
(6) Nothing in this article shall be invoked to delay or to prevent the
abolition of capital punishment by any State Party to the Present Covenant.
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhumane or degrading
treatment or punishment. In particular, no one shall be subjected without
his free consent to medical or scientific experimentation.
(1) No one shall be held in slavery; slavery and slave-trade in all their
forms shall be prohibited.
(2) No one shall be held in servitude.
(a) No one shall be required to perform forced or compulsory labour;
(b) Paragraph 3(a) shall not be held to preclude, in countries where
imprisonment with hard labour may be imposed as a punishment for a crime,
the performance of hard labour in pursuance of a sentence to such punishment
by a competent court;
(c) For the purpose of this paragraph the term "forced or compulsory labour"
shall not include:
- (i) Any work or service, not referred to in sub-paragraph (b), normally
required of a person who is under detention in consequence of a lawful order
of a court, or of a person during conditional release from such detention;
(ii) Any service of a military character and, in countries where
conscientious objection is recognized, any national service required by law
of conscientious objectors;
(iii) Any service exacted in cases of emergency or calamity threatening
the life or well-being of the community;
(iv) Any work or service which forms part of normal civil obligations.
(1) Everyone has the right to liberty and security of person. No one shall
be subjected to arbitrary arrest or detention. No one shall be deprived of
his liberty except on such grounds and in accordance with such procedure as
are established by law.
(2) Anyone who is arrested shall be informed, at the time of arrest, of the
reasons for his arrest and shall be promptly informed of any charges against
(3) Anyone arrested or detained on a criminal charge shall be brought
promptly before a judge or other officer authorized by law to exercise
judicial power and shall be entitled to trial within a reasonable time or to
release. It shall not be the general rule that persons awaiting trial shall
be detained in custody, but release may be subject to guarantees to appear
for trial, at any other stage of the judicial proceedings, and, should
occasion arise, for execution of the judgement.
(4) Anyone who is deprived of his liberty by arrest or detention shall be
entitled to take proceedings before a court, in order that that court may
decide without delay on the lawfulness of his detention and order his
release if the detention is not lawful.
(5) Anyone who has been the victim of unlawful arrest or detention shall
have an enforceable right to compensation.
(1) All persons deprived of their liberty shall be treated with humanity
and with respect for the inherent dignity of the human person.
(a) Accused persons shall, save in exceptional circumstances, be segregated
from convicted persons and shall be subject to separate treatment
appropriate to their status as unconvicted persons; (b) Accused juvenile
persons shall be separated from adults and brought as speedily as possible
(3) The penitentiary system shall comprise treatment of prisoners the
essential aim of which shall be their reformation and social rehabilitation.
Juvenile offenders shall be segregated from adults and accorded treatment
appropriate to their age and legal status.
No one shall be imprisoned merely on the grounds of inability to fulfill a
(1) Everyone lawfully within the territory of a State shall, within that
territory, have the right to liberty of movement and freedom to choose his
(2) Everyone shall be free to leave any country, including his own.
(3) The above-mentioned rights shall not be subject to any restrictions
except those which are provided by law, are necessary to protect national
security, public order (ordre public), public health or morals or the rights
and freedoms of others, and are consistent with the other rights recognized
in the present Covenant.
(4) No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of the right to enter his own
An alien lawfully in the territory of a State Party to the Present Covenant
may be expelled therefrom only in pursuance of a decision reached in
accordance with the law and shall, except where compelling reasons of
national security otherwise require, be allowed to submit reasons against
his expulsion and to have his case reviewed by, and be represented for the
purpose before, the competent authority or a person or persons especially
designated by the competent authority.
(1) All persons shall be equal before courts and tribunals. In the
determination of any criminal charge against him, or of his rights and
obligations in a suit of law, everyone shall be entitled to a fair and
public hearing by a competent, independent and impartial tribunal
established by law. The Press and public may be excluded from all or part of
the trial for reasons of morals, public order (ordre public) or national
security in a democratic society, or when the interest of the private lives
of the parties so requires, or to the extent strictly necessary in the
opinion of the court in special circumstances where publicity would
prejudice the interests of justice; but any judgement rendered in a criminal
case or in a suit of law shall be made public except where the interest of
juvenile persons otherwise requires or the proceedings concern matrimonial
disputes or the guardianship of children.
(2) Everyone charged with a criminal offense shall have the right to be
presumed innocent until proven guilty according to law.
(3) In the determination of any criminal charge against him, everyone shall
be entitled to the following minimum guarantees, in full equality:
(a) To be informed promptly and in detail in a language which he
understands of the nature and cause of the charge against him; (b) To have
adequate time and facilities for the preparation of his defense and to
communicate with a counsel of his own choosing; (c) To be tried without
undue delay; (e) To examine, or have examined, the witnesses against him and
to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on his behalf under
the same conditions as witnesses against him; (f) To have the free
assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand or speak the language
used in court; (g) Not to be compelled to testify against himself or to
(4) In the case of juvenile persons, the procedure shall be such as will
take account of their age and the desirability of promoting their
(5) Everyone convicted of a crime shall have the right to his conviction
and sentence being reviewed by a higher tribunal according to law.
(6) When a person has by final decision been convicted of a criminal
offense and when subsequently his conviction has been reversed or he has
been pardoned on the ground that a new or newly discovered fact shows
conclusively that there has been a miscarriage of justice, the person who
has suffered punishment as a result of such conviction shall be compensated
according to law, unless it is proved that the non-disclosure of the unknown
fact is wholly or partially attributable to him.
(7) No one shall be liable to be tried or punished again for an offence for
which he has already been finally convicted or acquitted in accordance with
the law and penal procedure of each country.
(1) No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence on account of any
act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence, under national
or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier
penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time when the
criminal offence was committed. If, subsequent to the commission of the
offence, provision is made by law for the imposition of a lighter penalty,
the offender shall benefit thereby.
(2) Nothing in this article hall prejudice the trial and punishment of any
person for any act or omission which, at the time when it was committed, was
criminal according to the general principles of law recognized by the
community of nations.
Everyone shall have the right to recognition everywhere as a person before
(1) No one shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with
his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his
honour and reputation.
(2) Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such
interference or attacks.
(1) Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and
religion. This right shall include the freedom to have or adopt a religion
or belief of his choice, and freedom, either individually or in community
with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in
worship, observance, practice and teaching.
(2) No one shall be subject to coercion which would impair his freedom to
have or adopt a religion or belief of his choice.
(3) Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs may be subject only to
such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary to protect
public safety, order, health, or morals or the fundamental rights and
freedoms of others.
(4) The States Parties to the Present Covenant undertake to have respect
for the liberty of parents and, when applicable, legal guardians to ensure
the religious and moral education of their children in conformity with their
(1) Everyone shall have the right to hold opinions without interference.
(2) Everyone shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right
shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of
all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print,
in the form of art, or through any other media of his choice.
(3) The exercise of the rights provided for in paragraph 2 of this article
carries with it special duties and responsibilities. It may therefore be
subject to certain restrictions, but these shall be only as are provided by
law and are necessary:
(a) For respect of the rights of others; (b) For the protection of national
security or of public order (ordre public), or of public health or morals.
(1) Any propaganda for war shall be prohibited by law.
(2) The advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that constitutes
incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence shall be prohibited by
The right of peaceful assembly shall be recognized. No restrictions may be
placed on the exercise of this right other than those imposed in conformity
with the law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the
interests of national security or public safety, public order (ordre
public), the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the
rights and freedoms of others.
(1) Everyone shall have the right to freedom of association with others,
including the right to form and join trade unions for the protection of his
(2) No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of this right other then
those which are prescribed by law and which are necessary in a democratic
society in the interests of national security or public safety, public order
(ordre public), the protection of public health or morals or the protection
of the rights and freedoms of others. This article shall not prevent the
imposition of lawful restrictions on members of the armed forces and of the
police in their exercise of this rights.
(3) Nothing in this article shall authorize States Parties to the
International Labour Organization Convention of 1948 concerning Freedom of
Association and Protection of the Right to Organize to take legislative
measures which would prejudice, or to apply the law in such a manner as to
prejudice, the guarantees provided for in that Convention.
(1) The family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is
entitled to protection by society and the State.
(2) The right of men and women of marriageable age to marry and to found a
family shall be recognized.
(3) No marriage shall be entered into without the free and full consent of
the intending spouses.
(4) States Parties to the Present Covenant shall take appropriate steps to
ensure equality of rights and responsibilities of spouses as to marriage,
during marriage and at its dissolution. In the case of dissolution,
provision shall be made for the necessary protection of the children.
(1) Every child shall have, without discrimination as to race, colour, sex,
language, religion, national or social origin, property or birth, the right
to such measures or protection as are required by his status as a minor, on
the part of his family, society and the state.
(2) Every child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have
(3) Every child has the right to acquire a nationality.
Every citizen shall have the right and the opportunity, without any if the
distinctions mentioned in article 2 and without unreasonable restrictions:
(a) To take part in the conduct of public affairs, directly or through
freely chosen representatives;
(b) To vote and to be elected at genuine periodic elections which shall be
by universal and equal suffrage and shall be held by secret ballot,
guaranteeing the free expression of the will of the electors;
(c) To have access, on general terms of equality, to public service in his
country. Article 26
All persons are equal before the law and are entitled without any
discrimination to the equal protection of the law. In this respect, the law
shall prohibit any discrimination and guarantee to all persons equal and
effective protection against discrimination on any ground such as race,
colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or
social origin, property, birth or other status.
In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities exist,
persons belonging to such minorities shall not be denied the right, in
community with other members of their group, to enjoy their own culture, to
profess and practise their own religion, or to use their own language.
(1) There shall be established a Human Rights Committee (hereafter referred
to in the present Covenant as the Committee). It shall consist of eighteen
members and shall carry out the functions hereinafter provided.
(2) the Committee shall be composed of nationals of the States Parties to
the Present Covenant who shall be persons of high moral character and
recognized competence in the field of human rights, consideration being
given to the usefulness of the participation of some persons having legal
(3) The members of the Committee shall be elected and serve in their
(1) The members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot from a
list of persons possessing the qualifications prescribed in article 28 and
nominated for the purpose by the States Parties to the Present Covenant.
(2) Each State Party to the Present Covenant may nominate not more than two
persons. These persons shall be nationals of the nominating State.
(3) A person shall be eligible for renomination.
(1) The initial election shall be held no later than six months after the
date of entry into force of the present Covenant.
(2) At least four months before the date of each election to the Committee,
other than an election to fill a vacancy declared in accordance with article
34, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall address a written
invitation to the States Parties to the Present Covenant to submit their
nominations for membership of the Committee within three months.
(3) The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall prepare a list in
alphabetical order of all the persons thus nominated, with an indication of
the States Parties which have nominated them, and shall submit it to the
States Parties to the Present Covenant no later then one month before the
date of each election.
(4) Elections of the members of the Committee shall be held at a meeting of
the States Parties to the Present Covenant convened by the Secretary-
General of the United Nations at the Headquarters of the United Nations. At
that meeting, for which two thirds of the States Parties to the Present
Covenant shall constitute a quorum, the persons elected to the Committee
shall be those nominees who obtain the largest number of votes and an
absolute majority of the votes of the representatives of States Parties
present and voting.
(1) The Committee may not include more than one national of the same State.
(2) In the election of the Committee, consideration shall be given to
equitable geographical distribution of membership and to the representation
of the different forms of civilizations and of the principal legal systems.
(1) The members of the Committee shall be elected for a term of four years.
They shall be eligible for re-election if renominated. However, the terms of
nine of the members elected at the first election shall expire at the end of
two years;immediately after the first election, the names of these nine
members shall be chosen by lot by the Chairman of the meeting referred to in
article 30, paragraph 4.
(2) Elections at the expiry of office shall be held in accordance with the
preceeding articles of this part of the present Covenant.
(1) If, in the unanimous opinion of the other members of the Committee, a
member of the Committee has ceased to carry out his functions for any cause
other than absence of a temporary character, the Chairman of the Committee
shall notify the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall declare
the seat of that member to be vacant.
(2) In the event of the death or the resignation of a member of the
Committee, the Chairman shall immediately notify the Secretary-General of
the United Nations, who shall declare the seat vacant from the date of death
or the date on which the resignation takes effect.
(1) When a vacancy is declared in accordance with article 33 and if the
term of office of the member to be replaced does not expire within six
months of the declaration of the vacancy, the Secretary-General of the
United Nations shall notify each of the States Parties to the Present
Covenant, which may within two months submit nominations in accordance with
article 29 for the purpose of filling the vacancy.
(2) The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall prepare a list in
alphabetical order of the persons thus nominated and shall submit it to the
States Parties to the Present Covenant. The election to fill the vacancy
shall then take place in accordance with the relevant provisions of this
part of the present Covenant.
(3) A member of the Committee elected to fill a vacancy declared in
accordance with article 33 shall hold office for the remainder of the term
of the members who vacated the seat on the Committee under the provisions of
The members of the Committee shall, with the approval of the General
Assembly of the United Nations, receive emoluments from United Nations
resources on such terms and conditions as the General Assembly may decide,
having regard to the importance of the Committee's responsibility.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide the necessary
staff and facilities for the effective performance of the functions of the
Committee under the present Covenant.
(1) The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall convene the initial
meeting of the Committee at the Headquarters of the United Nations.
(2) After its initial meeting, the Committee shall meet at such times as
shall be provided by its rules of procedure.
(3) The Committee shall normally meet at the Headquarters of the United
Nations or at the United Nations office at Geneva.
Every member of the Committee shall, before taking up his duties, make a
solemn declaration in open committee that he will perform his functions
impartially and conscientiously.
(1) The Committee shall elect its officers for a term of two years. They
may be re-elected.
(2) The Committee shall establish its own rules of procedure, but these
rules shall provide, inter alia, that:
(a) Twelve members shall constitute a quorum; (b) Decisions of the
Committee shall be made by a majority vote of the members present.
(1) The States Parties to the Present Covenant undertake to submit reports
on the measures they have adopted which give effect to the rights recognized
herein and on the progress made in the enjoyment of those rights:
(a) Within one year of the entry into force of the present Covenant for the
States Parties concerned; (b) Thereafter whenever the Committee so requests.
(2) All reports shall be submitted to the Secretary-General of the United
Nations, who shall transmit them to the Committee for consideration. Reports
shall indicate the factors and difficulties, if any, affecting the
implementation of the present Covenant.
(3) The Secretary-General of the United Nations may, after consultation
with the Committee, transmit to the specialized agencies concerned copies of
such parts of the reports as may fall within their field of competence.
(4) The Committee shall study the reports submitted by the States Parties
to the Present Covenant. It shall transmit its reports, and such general
comments as it may consider appropriate, to the States Parties. The
Committee may also transmit to the Economic and Social Council these
comments along with the copies of the reports it has received from States
Parties to the present Covenant.
(5) The States Parties to the Present Covenant may submit to the Committee
observations on any comments that may be made in accordance with paragraph 4
of this article.
(1) A State Party to the Present Covenant may at any time declare under
this article that it recognizes the competence of the Committee to receive
and consider communications to the effect that a State Party claims that
another State Party is not fulfilling its obligations under the present
Covenant. Communications under this article may be received and considered
only if submitted by a State Party which has made a declaration recognizing
in regard to itself the competence of the Committee. No communication shall
be received by the Committee if it concerns a State Party which has not made
such a declaration. Communications received under this article shall be
dealt with in accordance with the following procedure:
- (a) If a State Party to the Present Covenant considers that another
State Party is not giving effect to the provisions of the present Covenant,
it may, by written communication, bring the matter to the attention of that
State Party. Within three months after the receipt of the communication, the
receiving State shall afford the State which sent the communication an
explanation or any other statement in writing clarifying the matter, which
should include, to the extent possible and pertinent, reference to domestic
procedures and remedies taken, pending, or available in the matter.
If the matter is not adjusted to the satisfaction of both States Parties
concerned within six months after the receipt by the receiving State of the
initial communication, either State shall have the right to refer the matter
to the Committee, by notice given to the Committee and to the other State.
(c) The Committee shall deal with a matter referred to it only after it
has ascertained that all available domestic remedies have been invoked
and exhausted in the matter, in conformity with the generally recognized
principles of international law. This shall not be the rule where the
application of the remedies is unreasonably prolonged.
(d) The Committee shall hold closed meetings when examining
communications under this article.
(e) Subject to the provisions of sub-paragraph (c), the Committee shall
make available its good offices to the States Parties concerned with a
view to a friendly solution to the matter on the basis of respect for
human rights and fundamental freedoms as recognized under this article.
(f) In any matter referred to it, the Committee may call upon the
States Parties concerned, referred to in sub-paragraph (b), to supply
any relevant information.
(g) The States Parties concerned, referred to in sub-paragraph (b),
shall have the right to be represented when the matter is being
considered in the Committee and to make submissions orally and/or in
(h) The Committee shall, within twelve months after the date of receipt
of the notice under sub-paragraph (b), submit a report:
(i) If a solution within the terms of sub-paragraph (e) is reached, the
Committee shall confine its report to a brief statement of the facts and
the solution reached; (ii) If a solution within the terms of
sub-paragraph (e) is not reached, the Committee shall confine its report
to a brief statement of the facts; the written submission and record of
the oral submission made by the States Parties concerned shall be
attached to the report. In every matter, the report shall be
communicated to the States Parties concerned.
(2) The provisions of this article shall come into force when ten States
Parties to the Present Covenant have made declarations under paragraph 1 of
this article. Such declarations shall be deposited by the States Parties
with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall transmit copies
thereof to the other States Parties. A declaration may be withdrawn at any
time by notification to the Secretary-General. Such a withdrawal shall not
prejudice the consideration of any matter which is the subject of a
communication already transmitted under the article; no further
communication by any State Party shall be received after the notification of
withdrawal of the declaration has been received by the Secretary- General,
unless the State Party has made a new declaration.
- (a) If a matter referred to the Committee in accordance with article 41
is not resolved to the satisfaction of the States Parties concerned, the
Committee may, with the prior consent of the States Parties concerned,
appoint an ad hoc Conciliation Commission (hereinafter referred to as the
Commission). The good offices of the Commission shall be made available to
the States Parties concerned with a view to an amicable solution of the
matter on the basis of respect for the present Covenant;
Commission shall consist of five persons acceptable to the States Parties
concerned. If the States Parties concerned fail to reach agreement within
three months on all or part of the composition of the Commission, the
members of the Commission concerning whom no agreement has been reached
shall be elected by secret ballot by a two-thirds majority vote of the
Committee from among its members.
(2) The members of the Commission shall serve in their personal capacity.
They shall not be nationals of the States Parties concerned, or of a State
not party to he present Covenant, or of a State Party which has not made a
declaration under article 41.
(3) The Commission shall elect its own Chairman and adopt its own rules of
(4) The meetings of the Commission shall normally be held at the
Headquarters of the United Nations or at the United Nations Office at
Geneva. However, they may be held at such other convenient places as the
Commission may determine in consultation with the Secretary-General of the
United Nations and the States Parties concerned.
(5) The secretariat provided in accordance with article 36 shall also
service the Commission appointed under this article.
(6) The information received and collated by the Committee shall be made
available to the Commission and the Commission may call upon the States
Parties concerned to supply any other relevant information.
(7) When the Commission has fully considered the matter, but in any event
not later then twelve months after having been seized of the matter, it
shall submit to the Chairman of the Committee a report for communication to
the States Parties concerned:
(a) If the Commission is unable to complete its consideration of the matter
within twelve months, it shall confine its report to a brief statement of
the status of its consideration of the matter; (b) If an amicable solution
to the matter on the basis of respect for human rights as recognized in the
present Covenant is reached, the Commission shall confine its report to a
brief statement of the facts and of the solution reached; (c) If a solution
within the terms of sub-paragraph (b) is not reached, the Commission's
report shall embody its findings on all questions of fact relevant to the
issues between the States Parties concerned, and its views on the
possibilities of an amicable solution of the matter. This report shall also
contain the written submissions and a record of the oral submission made by
the States Parties concerned; (d) If the Commission's report is submitted
under sub-paragraph (c), the States Parties concerned shall, within three
months of the receipt of the report, notify the Chairman of the Committee
whether or not they accept the contents of the report of the Commission.
(8) The provisions of this article are without prejudice to the
responsibilities of the Committee under article 41.
(9) The States Parties concerned shall share equally all the expenses of
the members of the Commission in accordance with estimates to be provided by
the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
(10) The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be empowered to pay
the expenses of the members of the Commission, if necessary, before
reimbursement by the States Parties concerned, in accordance with paragraph
9 of this article.
The members of the Committee, and of the ad hoc conciliation commissions
which may be appointed under article 42, shall be entitled to the
facilities, privileges and immunities of experts on mission for the United
Nations as laid down in the relevant sections of the Convention on the
Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations.
The provisions for the implementation of the present Covenant shall apply
without prejudice to the procedures prescribed in the field of human rights
by or under the constituent instruments and conventions of the United
Nations and the specialized agencies and shall not prevent the States
Parties to the present Covenant from having recourse to other procedures for
settling a dispute in accordance with general or special international
agreements in force between them.
The Committee shall submit to the General Assembly of the United Nations,
through the Economic and Social Council, an annual report of its activities.
Nothing in the present Covenant shall be interpreted as impairing the
provisions of the Charter of the United Nations and of the constitutions of
the specialized agencies which define the respective responsibilities of the
various organs of the United Nations and of the specialized agencies in
regard to the matters dealt with in the present Covenant.
Nothing in the present Covenant shall be interpreted as impairing the
inherent right of all peoples to enjoy and utilize fully and freely their
natural wealth and resources.
(1) The present Covenant is open for signature by any State Member of the
United Nations or member of any of its specialized agencies, by any State
Party to the Statute of the International Court of Justice, and by any other
State which has been invited by the General Assembly of the United nations
to become party to the present Covenant.
(2) The present Covenant is subject to ratification. Instruments of
ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary General of the United
(3) The present Covenant shall be open to accession by any State referred
to in paragraph 1 of this article.
(4) Accession shall be effected by the deposit of an instrument of
accession with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
(5) The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform all States
which have signed this Covenant or acceded to it of the deposit of each
instrument of ratification or accession.
(1) the present Covenant shall enter into force three months after the date
of the deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the
thirty- fifth instrument of ratification or instrument of accession.
(2) For each State ratifying the present Covenant or acceding to it after
the deposit of the thirty-fifth instrument of ratification or instrument of
accession, the present Covenant shall enter into force three months after
the date of the deposit of its own instrument of ratification or instrument
The Provisions of the present Covenant shall extend to all parts of federal
States without any limitation or exceptions.
(1) Any State Party to the present Covenant may propose an amendment and
file it with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. The
Secretary-General of the United Nations shall thereupon communicate any
proposed amendments to the States Parties to the present Covenant with a
request that they notify him whether they favour a conference of States
Parties for the purpose of considering and voting upon the proposals. In the
event that at least one third of all States Parties favours such a
conference, the Secretary-General shall convene the conference under the
auspices of the United Nations. Any amendments adopted by a majority of the
States Parties present and voting at the conference shall be submitted to
the General Assembly of the United Nations for approval.
(2) Amendments shall come into force when they have been approved by the
General Assembly of the United Nations and accepted by a two-thirds majority
of the States Parties to the present Covenant in accordance with their
respective constitutional processes.
(3) When amendments come into force, they shall be binding on those States
Parties which have accepted them, other States Parties still being bound by
the provisions of the present Covenant and earlier amendments which they
Irrespective of the notifications made under article 48, paragraph 5, the
Secretary-General of the United Nations shall inform all States referred to
in paragraph 1 of the same article of the following particulars:
(a) Signatures, ratifications and accessions under article 48;
(b) The date of the entry into force of the present Covenant under article
49 and the date of entry into force of any amendments under article 51.
(1) The present Covenant, of which the Chinese, English, French, Russian
and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited in the archives
of the United Nations.
(2) The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall transmit certified
copies of the present Covenant to all States referred to in article 48.