Human Rights &
the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
as amended by Protocol No. 11, 1998
[also in PDF]
The text of
the Convention had been amended according to the provisions of Protocol No.
3 (ETS No. 45), which entered into force on 21 September 1970, of Protocol
No. 5 (ETS No. 55), which entered into force on 20 December 1971 and of
Protocol No. 8 (ETS No. 118), which entered into force on 1 January 1990,
and comprised also the text of Protocol No. 2 (ETS No. 44) which, in
accordance with Article 5, paragraph 3 thereof, had been an integral part of
the Convention since its entry into force on 21 September 1970. All
provisions which had been amended or added by these Protocols are replaced
by Protocol No. 11 (ETS No. 155), as from the date of its entry into force
on 1 November 1998. As from that date, Protocol No. 9 (ETS No. 140), which
entered into force on 1 October 1994, is repealed and Protocol No. 10 (ETS
No. 146) has lost its purpose.
Chart of Declarations under former Articles 25 and 46 of the
No. 4 |
No. 6 |
The governments signatory hereto, being members of the Council of Europe,
Universal Declaration of Human Rights proclaimed by the General
Assembly of the United Nations on 10th December 1948;
Considering that this Declaration aims at securing the
universal and effective recognition and observance of the Rights therein
Considering that the aim of the Council of Europe is the
achievement of greater unity between its members and that one of the
methods by which that aim is to be pursued is the maintenance and
further realisation of human rights and fundamental freedoms;
Reaffirming their profound belief in those fundamental
freedoms which are the foundation of justice and peace in the world and
are best maintained on the one hand by an effective political democracy
and on the other by a common understanding and observance of the human
rights upon which they depend;
Being resolved, as the governments of European countries
which are like-minded and have a common heritage of political
traditions, ideals, freedom and the rule of law, to take the first steps
for the collective enforcement of certain of the rights stated in the
Have agreed as follows:
Article 1 – Obligation to respect human rights
The High Contracting Parties shall secure to everyone
within their jurisdiction the rights and freedoms defined in Section I
of this Convention.
Section I – Rights and freedoms
Article 2 – Right to life1
Everyone's right to life shall be protected by law.
No one shall be deprived of his life intentionally save in the
execution of a sentence of a court following his conviction of a
crime for which this penalty is provided by law.
Deprivation of life shall not be regarded as
inflicted in contravention of this article when it results from the
use of force which is no more than absolutely necessary:
in defence of any person from unlawful violence;
in order to effect a lawful arrest or to prevent
the escape of a person lawfully detained;
in action lawfully taken for the purpose of
quelling a riot or insurrection.
Article 3 – Prohibition of torture1
No one shall be subjected to torture or to inhuman or
degrading treatment or punishment.
Article 4 – Prohibition of slavery and forced labour1
No one shall be held in slavery or servitude.
No one shall be required to perform forced or
For the purpose of this article the term "forced or
compulsory labour" shall not include:
any work required to be done in the ordinary
course of detention imposed according to the provisions of
Article 5 of this Convention or during conditional release from
any service of a military character or, in case
of conscientious objectors in countries where they are
recognised, service exacted instead of compulsory military
any service exacted in case of an emergency or
calamity threatening the life or well-being of the community;
any work or service which forms part of normal
Article 5 –
Right to liberty and security1
Everyone has the right to liberty and security of
person. No one shall be deprived of his liberty save in the
following cases and in accordance with a procedure prescribed by
the lawful detention of a person after
conviction by a competent court;
the lawful arrest or detention of a person for
non-compliance with the lawful order of a court or in order to
secure the fulfilment of any obligation prescribed by law;
the lawful arrest or detention of a person
effected for the purpose of bringing him before the competent
legal authority on reasonable suspicion of having committed an
offence or when it is reasonably considered necessary to prevent
his committing an offence or fleeing after having done so;
the detention of a minor by lawful order for the
purpose of educational supervision or his lawful detention for
the purpose of bringing him before the competent legal
the lawful detention of persons for the
prevention of the spreading of infectious diseases, of persons
of unsound mind, alcoholics or drug addicts or vagrants;
the lawful arrest or detention of a person to
prevent his effecting an unauthorised entry into the country or
of a person against whom action is being taken with a view to
deportation or extradition.
Everyone who is arrested shall be informed promptly,
in a language which he understands, of the reasons for his arrest
and of any charge against him.
Everyone arrested or detained in accordance with the
provisions of paragraph 1.c of this article shall be brought
promptly before a judge or other officer authorised by law to
exercise judicial power and shall be entitled to trial within a
reasonable time or to release pending trial. Release may be
conditioned by guarantees to appear for trial.
Everyone who is deprived of his liberty by arrest or
detention shall be entitled to take proceedings by which the
lawfulness of his detention shall be decided speedily by a court and
his release ordered if the detention is not lawful.
Everyone who has been the victim of arrest or
detention in contravention of the provisions of this article shall
have an enforceable right to compensation.
Article 6 –
Right to a fair trial1
In the determination of his civil rights and
obligations or of any criminal charge against him, everyone is
entitled to a fair and public hearing within a reasonable time by an
independent and impartial tribunal established by law. Judgment
shall be pronounced publicly but the press and public may be
excluded from all or part of the trial in the interests of morals,
public order or national security in a democratic society, where the
interests of juveniles or the protection of the private life of the
parties so require, or to the extent strictly necessary in the
opinion of the court in special circumstances where publicity would
prejudice the interests of justice.
Everyone charged with a criminal offence shall be
presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law.
Everyone charged with a criminal offence has the
following minimum rights:
to be informed promptly, in a language which he
understands and in detail, of the nature and cause of the
accusation against him;
to have adequate time and facilities for the
preparation of his defence;
to defend himself in person or through legal
assistance of his own choosing or, if he has not sufficient
means to pay for legal assistance, to be given it free when the
interests of justice so require;
to examine or have examined witnesses against
him and to obtain the attendance and examination of witnesses on
his behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against him;
to have the free assistance of an interpreter if
he cannot understand or speak the language used in court.
Article 7 – No
punishment without law1
No one shall be held guilty of any criminal offence
on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a
criminal offence under national or international law at the time
when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than
the one that was applicable at the time the criminal offence was
This article shall not prejudice the trial and
punishment of any person for any act or omission which, at the time
when it was committed, was criminal according to the general
principles of law recognised by civilised nations.
Article 8 –
Right to respect for private and family life1
Everyone has the right to respect for his private
and family life, his home and his correspondence.
There shall be no interference by a public authority
with the exercise of this right except such as is in accordance with
the law and is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of
national security, public safety or the economic well-being of the
country, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection
of health or morals, or for the protection of the rights and
freedoms of others.
Article 9 – Freedom of thought, conscience and religion1
Everyone has the right to freedom of thought,
conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his
religion or belief and freedom, either alone or in community with
others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief,
in worship, teaching, practice and observance.
Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs shall
be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are
necessary in a democratic society in the interests of public safety,
for the protection of public order, health or morals, or for the
protection of the rights and freedoms of others.
Article 10 –
Freedom of expression1
Everyone has the right to freedom of expression.
This right shall include freedom to hold opinions and to receive and
impart information and ideas without interference by public
authority and regardless of frontiers. This article shall not
prevent States from requiring the licensing of broadcasting,
television or cinema enterprises.
The exercise of these freedoms, since it carries
with it duties and responsibilities, may be subject to such
formalities, conditions, restrictions or penalties as are prescribed
by law and are necessary in a democratic society, in the interests
of national security, territorial integrity or public safety, for
the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or
morals, for the protection of the reputation or rights of others,
for preventing the disclosure of information received in confidence,
or for maintaining the authority and impartiality of the judiciary.
Article 11 –
Freedom of assembly and association1
Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful
assembly and to freedom of association with others, including the
right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his
No restrictions shall be placed on the exercise of
these rights other than such as are prescribed by law and are
necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national
security or public safety, for the prevention of disorder or crime,
for the protection of health or morals or for the protection of the
rights and freedoms of others. This article shall not prevent the
imposition of lawful restrictions on the exercise of these rights by
members of the armed forces, of the police or of the administration
of the State.
Article 12 – Right to marry1
Men and women of marriageable age have the right to
marry and to found a family, according to the national laws governing
the exercise of this right.
Article 13 –
Right to an effective remedy1
Everyone whose rights and freedoms as set forth in this
Convention are violated shall have an effective remedy before a national
authority notwithstanding that the violation has been committed by
persons acting in an official capacity.
Article 14 – Prohibition of discrimination1
The enjoyment of the rights and freedoms set forth in
this Convention shall be secured without discrimination on any ground
such as sex, race, colour, language, religion, political or other
opinion, national or social origin, association with a national
minority, property, birth or other status.
Article 15 – Derogation in time of emergency1
In time of war or other public emergency threatening
the life of the nation any High Contracting Party may take measures
derogating from its obligations under this Convention to the extent
strictly required by the exigencies of the situation, provided that
such measures are not inconsistent with its other obligations under
No derogation from Article 2, except in respect of
deaths resulting from lawful acts of war, or from Articles 3, 4
(paragraph 1) and 7 shall be made under this provision.
Any High Contracting Party availing itself of this
right of derogation shall keep the Secretary General of the Council
of Europe fully informed of the measures which it has taken and the
reasons therefor. It shall also inform the Secretary General of the
Council of Europe when such measures have ceased to operate and the
provisions of the Convention are again being fully executed.
Article 16 – Restrictions on political activity of
Nothing in Articles 10, 11 and 14 shall be regarded as
preventing the High Contracting Parties from imposing restrictions on
the political activity of aliens.
Article 17 – Prohibition of abuse of rights1
Nothing in this Convention may be interpreted as
implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any
activity or perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the
rights and freedoms set forth herein or at their limitation to a greater
extent than is provided for in the Convention.
Article 18 – Limitation on use of restrictions on rights1
The restrictions permitted under this Convention to the
said rights and freedoms shall not be applied for any purpose other than
those for which they have been prescribed.
Section II – European Court of Human Rights2
Article 19 – Establishment of the Court
To ensure the observance of the engagements undertaken
by the High Contracting Parties in the Convention and the Protocols
thereto, there shall be set up a European Court of Human Rights,
hereinafter referred to as "the Court". It shall function on a permanent
Article 20 – Number of judges
The Court shall consist of a number of judges equal to
that of the High Contracting Parties.
Article 21 – Criteria for office
The judges shall be of high moral character and must
either possess the qualifications required for appointment to high
judicial office or be jurisconsults of recognised competence.
The judges shall sit on the Court in their
During their term of office the judges shall not
engage in any activity which is incompatible with their
independence, impartiality or with the demands of a full-time
office; all questions arising from the application of this paragraph
shall be decided by the Court.
Article 22 – Election of judges
The judges shall be elected by the Parliamentary
Assembly with respect to each High Contracting Party by a majority
of votes cast from a list of three candidates nominated by the High
The same procedure shall be followed to complete the
Court in the event of the accession of new High Contracting Parties
and in filling casual vacancies.
Article 23 – Terms of office
The judges shall be elected for a period of six
years. They may be re-elected. However, the terms of office of
one-half of the judges elected at the first election shall expire at
the end of three years.
The judges whose terms of office are to expire at
the end of the initial period of three years shall be chosen by lot
by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe immediately after
In order to ensure that, as far as possible, the
terms of office of one-half of the judges are renewed every three
years, the Parliamentary Assembly may decide, before proceeding to
any subsequent election, that the term or terms of office of one or
more judges to be elected shall be for a period other than six years
but not more than nine and not less than three years.
In cases where more than one term of office is
involved and where the Parliamentary Assembly applies the preceding
paragraph, the allocation of the terms of office shall be effected
by a drawing of lots by the Secretary General of the Council of
Europe immediately after the election.
A judge elected to replace a judge whose term of
office has not expired shall hold office for the remainder of his
The terms of office of judges shall expire when they
reach the age of 70.
The judges shall hold office until replaced. They
shall, however, continue to deal with such cases as they already
have under consideration.
Article 24 – Dismissal
No judge may be dismissed from his office unless the
other judges decide by a majority of two-thirds that he has ceased to
fulfil the required conditions.
Article 25 – Registry and legal secretaries
The Court shall have a registry, the functions and
organisation of which shall be laid down in the rules of the Court. The
Court shall be assisted by legal secretaries.
Article 26 – Plenary Court
The plenary Court shall:
elect its President and one or two Vice-Presidents
for a period of three years; they may be re-elected;
set up Chambers, constituted for a fixed period of
elect the Presidents of the Chambers of the Court;
they may be re-elected;
adopt the rules of the Court, and
elect the Registrar and one or more Deputy
Article 27 – Committees, Chambers and Grand Chamber
To consider cases brought before it, the Court shall
sit in committees of three judges, in Chambers of seven judges and
in a Grand Chamber of seventeen judges. The Court's Chambers shall
set up committees for a fixed period of time.
There shall sit as an ex officio member of
the Chamber and the Grand Chamber the judge elected in respect of
the State Party concerned or, if there is none or if he is unable to
sit, a person of its choice who shall sit in the capacity of judge.
The Grand Chamber shall also include the President
of the Court, the Vice-Presidents, the Presidents of the Chambers
and other judges chosen in accordance with the rules of the Court.
When a case is referred to the Grand Chamber under Article 43, no
judge from the Chamber which rendered the judgment shall sit in the
Grand Chamber, with the exception of the President of the Chamber
and the judge who sat in respect of the State Party concerned.
Article 28 – Declarations of inadmissibility by
A committee may, by a unanimous vote, declare
inadmissible or strike out of its list of cases an application submitted
under Article 34 where such a decision can be taken without further
examination. The decision shall be final.
Article 29 – Decisions by Chambers on admissibility and
If no decision is taken under Article 28, a Chamber
shall decide on the admissibility and merits of individual
applications submitted under Article 34.
A Chamber shall decide on the admissibility and
merits of inter-State applications submitted under Article 33.
The decision on admissibility shall be taken
separately unless the Court, in exceptional cases, decides
Article 30 – Relinquishment of jurisdiction to the Grand
Where a case pending before a Chamber raises a serious
question affecting the interpretation of the Convention or the protocols
thereto, or where the resolution of a question before the Chamber might
have a result inconsistent with a judgment previously delivered by the
Court, the Chamber may, at any time before it has rendered its judgment,
relinquish jurisdiction in favour of the Grand Chamber, unless one of
the parties to the case objects.
Article 31 – Powers of the Grand Chamber
The Grand Chamber shall:
determine applications submitted either under
Article 33 or Article 34 when a Chamber has relinquished
jurisdiction under Article 30 or when the case has been referred to
it under Article 43; and
consider requests for advisory opinions submitted
under Article 47.
Article 32 – Jurisdiction of the Court
The jurisdiction of the Court shall extend to all
matters concerning the interpretation and application of the
Convention and the protocols thereto which are referred to it as
provided in Articles 33, 34 and 47.
In the event of dispute as to whether the Court has
jurisdiction, the Court shall decide.
Article 33 – Inter-State cases
Any High Contracting Party may refer to the Court any
alleged breach of the provisions of the Convention and the protocols
thereto by another High Contracting Party.
Article 34 – Individual applications
Chart of Declarations under former Articles 25 and 46 of the ECHR
The Court may receive applications from any person,
non-governmental organisation or group of individuals claiming to be the
victim of a violation by one of the High Contracting Parties of the
rights set forth in the Convention or the protocols thereto. The High
Contracting Parties undertake not to hinder in any way the effective
exercise of this right.
Article 35 – Admissibility criteria
The Court may only deal with the matter after all
domestic remedies have been exhausted, according to the generally
recognised rules of international law, and within a period of six
months from the date on which the final decision was taken.
The Court shall not deal with any application
submitted under Article 34 that:
is anonymous; or
is substantially the same as a matter that has
already been examined by the Court or has already been submitted
to another procedure of international investigation or
settlement and contains no relevant new information.
The Court shall declare inadmissible any individual
application submitted under Article 34 which it considers
incompatible with the provisions of the Convention or the protocols
thereto, manifestly ill-founded, or an abuse of the right of
The Court shall reject any application which it
considers inadmissible under this Article. It may do so at any stage
of the proceedings.
Article 36 – Third party intervention
In all cases before a Chamber or the Grand Chamber,
a High Contracting Party one of whose nationals is an applicant
shall have the right to submit written comments and to take part in
The President of the Court may, in the interest of
the proper administration of justice, invite any High Contracting
Party which is not a party to the proceedings or any person
concerned who is not the applicant to submit written comments or
take part in hearings.
Article 37 – Striking out applications
The Court may at any stage of the proceedings decide
to strike an application out of its list of cases where the
circumstances lead to the conclusion that:
the applicant does not intend to pursue his
the matter has been resolved; or
for any other reason established by the Court,
it is no longer justified to continue the examination of the
However, the Court shall continue the examination of
the application if respect for human rights as defined in the
Convention and the protocols thereto so requires.
The Court may decide to restore an application to
its list of cases if it considers that the circumstances justify
such a course.
Article 38 – Examination of the case and friendly
If the Court declares the application admissible, it
pursue the examination of the case, together
with the representatives of the parties, and if need be,
undertake an investigation, for the effective conduct of which
the States concerned shall furnish all necessary facilities;
place itself at the disposal of the parties
concerned with a view to securing a friendly settlement of the
matter on the basis of respect for human rights as defined in
the Convention and the protocols thereto.
Proceedings conducted under paragraph 1.b shall be
Article 39 – Finding of a friendly settlement
If a friendly settlement is effected, the Court shall
strike the case out of its list by means of a decision which shall be
confined to a brief statement of the facts and of the solution reached.
Article 40 – Public hearings and access to documents
Hearings shall be in public unless the Court in
exceptional circumstances decides otherwise.
Documents deposited with the Registrar shall be
accessible to the public unless the President of the Court decides
Article 41 – Just satisfaction
If the Court finds that there has been a violation of
the Convention or the protocols thereto, and if the internal law of the
High Contracting Party concerned allows only partial reparation to be
made, the Court shall, if necessary, afford just satisfaction to the
Article 42 – Judgments of Chambers
Judgments of Chambers shall become final in accordance
with the provisions of Article 44, paragraph 2.
Article 43 – Referral to the Grand Chamber
Within a period of three months from the date of the
judgment of the Chamber, any party to the case may, in exceptional
cases, request that the case be referred to the Grand Chamber.
A panel of five judges of the Grand Chamber shall
accept the request if the case raises a serious question affecting
the interpretation or application of the Convention or the protocols
thereto, or a serious issue of general importance.
If the panel accepts the request, the Grand Chamber
shall decide the case by means of a judgment.
Article 44 – Final judgments
The judgment of the Grand Chamber shall be final.
The judgment of a Chamber shall become final:
when the parties declare that they will not
request that the case be referred to the Grand Chamber; or
three months after the date of the judgment, if
reference of the case to the Grand Chamber has not been
when the panel of the Grand Chamber rejects the
request to refer under Article 43.
The final judgment shall be published.
Article 45 – Reasons for judgments and decisions
Reasons shall be given for judgments as well as for
decisions declaring applications admissible or inadmissible.
If a judgment does not represent, in whole or in
part, the unanimous opinion of the judges, any judge shall be
entitled to deliver a separate opinion.
Article 46 – Binding force and execution of judgments
The High Contracting Parties undertake to abide by
the final judgment of the Court in any case to which they are
The final judgment of the Court shall be transmitted
to the Committee of Ministers, which shall supervise its execution.
Article 47 – Advisory opinions
The Court may, at the request of the Committee of
Ministers, give advisory opinions on legal questions concerning the
interpretation of the Convention and the protocols thereto.
Such opinions shall not deal with any question
relating to the content or scope of the rights or freedoms defined
in Section I of the Convention and the protocols thereto, or with
any other question which the Court or the Committee of Ministers
might have to consider in consequence of any such proceedings as
could be instituted in accordance with the Convention.
Decisions of the Committee of Ministers to request
an advisory opinion of the Court shall require a majority vote of
the representatives entitled to sit on the Committee.
Article 48 – Advisory jurisdiction of the Court
The Court shall decide whether a request for an advisory
opinion submitted by the Committee of Ministers is within its competence
as defined in Article 47.
Article 49 – Reasons for advisory opinions
Reasons shall be given for advisory opinions of the
If the advisory opinion does not represent, in whole
or in part, the unanimous opinion of the judges, any judge shall be
entitled to deliver a separate opinion.
Advisory opinions of the Court shall be communicated
to the Committee of Ministers.
Article 50 – Expenditure on the Court
The expenditure on the Court shall be borne by the
Council of Europe.
Article 51 – Privileges and immunities of judges
The judges shall be entitled, during the exercise of
their functions, to the privileges and immunities provided for in
Article 40 of the Statute of the Council of Europe and in the agreements
Section III – Miscellaneous provisions1,3
Article 52 – Inquiries by the Secretary General1
On receipt of a request from the Secretary General of
the Council of Europe any High Contracting Party shall furnish an
explanation of the manner in which its internal law ensures the
effective implementation of any of the provisions of the Convention.
Article 53 – Safeguard for existing human rights1
Nothing in this Convention shall be construed as
limiting or derogating from any of the human rights and fundamental
freedoms which may be ensured under the laws of any High Contracting
Party or under any other agreement to which it is a Party.
Article 54 – Powers of the Committee of Ministers1
Nothing in this Convention shall prejudice the powers
conferred on the Committee of Ministers by the Statute of the Council of
Article 55 – Exclusion of other means of dispute
The High Contracting Parties agree that, except by
special agreement, they will not avail themselves of treaties,
conventions or declarations in force between them for the purpose of
submitting, by way of petition, a dispute arising out of the
interpretation or application of this Convention to a means of
settlement other than those provided for in this Convention.
Article 56 – Territorial application1
State may at the time of its ratification or at any time thereafter
declare by notification addressed to the Secretary General of the
Council of Europe that the present Convention shall, subject to
paragraph 4 of this Article, extend to all or any of the territories
for whose international relations it is responsible.
The Convention shall extend to the territory or
territories named in the notification as from the thirtieth day
after the receipt of this notification by the Secretary General of
the Council of Europe.
The provisions of this Convention shall be applied
in such territories with due regard, however, to local requirements.
State which has made a declaration in accordance with paragraph 1 of
this article may at any time thereafter declare on behalf of one or
more of the territories to which the declaration relates that it
accepts the competence of the Court to receive applications from
individuals, non-governmental organisations or groups of individuals
as provided by Article 34 of the Convention.
Article 57 – Reservations1
Any State may, when signing this Convention or when
depositing its instrument of ratification, make a reservation in
respect of any particular provision of the Convention to the extent
that any law then in force in its territory is not in conformity
with the provision. Reservations of a general character shall not be
permitted under this article.
Any reservation made under this article shall
contain a brief statement of the law concerned.
Article 58 – Denunciation
A High Contracting Party may denounce the present
Convention only after the expiry of five years from the date on
which it became a party to it and after six months' notice contained
in a notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council
of Europe, who shall inform the other High Contracting Parties.
Such a denunciation shall not have the effect of
releasing the High Contracting Party concerned from its obligations
under this Convention in respect of any act which, being capable of
constituting a violation of such obligations, may have been
performed by it before the date at which the denunciation became
Any High Contracting Party which shall cease to be a
member of the Council of Europe shall cease to be a Party to this
Convention under the same conditions.
4The Convention may be denounced in accordance with the
provisions of the preceding paragraphs in respect of any territory
to which it has been declared to extend under the terms of Article
Article 59 – Signature and ratification
This Convention shall be open to the signature of
the members of the Council of Europe. It shall be ratified.
Ratifications shall be deposited with the Secretary General of the
Council of Europe.
The present Convention shall come into force after
the deposit of ten instruments of ratification.
As regards any signatory ratifying subsequently, the
Convention shall come into force at the date of the deposit of its
instrument of ratification.
The Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall
notify all the members of the Council of Europe of the entry into
force of the Convention, the names of the High Contracting Parties
who have ratified it, and the deposit of all instruments of
ratification which may be effected subsequently.
Done at Rome this 4th day of November 1950, in English and
French, both texts being equally authentic, in a single copy which shall
remain deposited in the archives of the Council of Europe. The Secretary
General shall transmit certified copies to each of the signatories.
(1) Heading added
according to the provisions of Protocol No. 11 (ETS No. 155).
(2) New Section II according to the
provisions of Protocol No. 11 (ETS No. 155).
(3) The articles of this Section are
renumbered according to the provisions of Protocol No. 11 (ETS No. 155).
(4) Text amended according to the
provisions of Protocol No. 11 (ETS No. 155).