Tamils - a Trans State Nation..

"To us all towns are one, all men our kin.
Life's good comes not from others' gift, nor ill
Man's pains and pains' relief are from within.
Thus have we seen in visions of the wise !."
Tamil Poem in Purananuru, circa 500 B.C 

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Tamils - a Trans State Nation
தமிழ் அகம் - ஓர் உணர்வா, அல்லது இடமா?

Tamil Nadu - தமிழ் நாடு
- an estimated 60 million Tamils live in Tamil Nadu - 

Tamil Nadu - Time Line

Pre-Historic Period

30,000 BCE : Paleolithic industries in north Tamil Nadu.

8000-3000 BCE : Pre-pottery microlithic industries.

3000-1000 BCE : Neolithic and fine microlithic industries.

Pre-Sangam Period

1000-300 BCE : Megalithic age.

600 BCE : Tamil Brahmi prevalent as the Tamil script.

250 BCE : Asoka's inscription recording the four kingdoms (Chera, Cholas, Pandya and
Satyaputra) of the ancient Tamil country.

200 BCE : Elara, a Tamil prince and contemporary of Dutte Gamini, rules Lanka.

Sangam Age

200 BCE-200 CE - Sangam age during which books of Sangam Literature are created.

150 BCE - Kharavela of Kalinga records his conquest of a federation of Tamil kings in his
Hathigumpha inscription.

130 - Chera king Udayanjeral rules in the Chera country.

175-195 - Gajabahu I of Lanka a contemporary of Chera Senguttuvan and Karikala Chola.

190 - Chera Kadukko Ilanjeral Irumporai rules in the Chera country.

200 - Writing becomes widespread and vattezuttu evolved from the Tamil Brahmi becomes a
mature script for writing Tamil.

210 - Pandya Neduncheliyan rules in Madurai and defeats his enemies at the battle of

Post-Sangam Period

300-590 - Kalabhras invade the Tamil country and displace the traditional rulers.

300-500 - Post Sangam period, Tamil epics such as Cilappatikaram written.

Pallava and Pandya

560-580 - Pallava Simhavishnu overthrows the Kalabhras in Tondaimandalam.

560-590 - Pandya Kadungon rules from Madurai and displaces the Kalabhras from the south.

590-630 - Pallava Mahendravarman I rules in Kanchipuram.

610 - Saiva saint Thirunavukkarasar (Appar) converts Mahendravarman from Jainism.

628 - Chalukya Pulakesi II invades the Pallava kingdom and lays siege on Kanchipuram.

630-668 - Pallava Narasimhavarman I (Mamalla) rules in Tondaimandalam.

642 - Pallava Narasimhavarman I launches a counter invasion into the Chalukya country and
sacks Vatapi. Pulakesi is killed in battle.

670-700 - CE-Pandya Arikesari Parankusa Maravarman rules in Madurai.

700-728 - Pallava Rajasimha builds the Kailasanatha temple in Kanchipuram and many of the
shore temples in Mamallapuram.

700-730 - Pandya Ranadhira (Koccadayan) expands the Pandya kingdom into the Kongu

731 - Succession crisis in the Pallava kingdom. Council of ministers select Nandivarman II
(Pallavamalla) (731-796) as the Pallava king.

731-765 - Pandya Maravarman Rajasimha aligns with the Chalukya Vikramaditya II and
attacks the Pallava king Nandivarmam.

735 - Chaluka Vikramaditya II invades the Pallava country and occupies the capital

760 - Pallava Nandivarman II invades and defeats the Ganga kingdom at the battle of

765-815 - Pandya Parantaka Nedunjadaiyan (Varaguna Pandyan) rules in Madurai.

767 - Pandya forces defeat the Pallavas on the south banks of the Kaveri.

800-830 - Varagunan I becomes Pandya king and extends his empire up to Tiruchirapalli by
defeating the Pallava king Dandivarman.

830-862 - Pandya Sirmara Srivallabha rules in Madurai.

840 - Srimara invades Lanka and captures the northern provices of the Lanka king Sena I.

850 - Rise of Vijayalaya Chola in Tanjavur.

846-869 - Pallava Nadivarman III leads an invasion against the Pandya kingdom and defeats
the Pandyas at the battle of Tellaru. Pallava kingdom extnds up to the river Vaigai.

859 - Pandya Srivallaba defeats the Pallavas at a battle at Kumbakonam.

862 - Sinhala forces under Sena II invade the Pandya coutry and sack Madurai. Srimara is
killed in battle.

Chola Period

903 - Aditya Chola defeats the Pallava king Aparajita.

949 - Battle of Takkolam. Rashtrakuta Krishna III defeats the Chola army.

985 - Accession of Rajaraja Chola I.

1010 - Rajaraja completes the Brihadisvara Temple.

1012 - Accession of Rajendra Chola I.

1023 - Rajendra's expedition to the Ganges.

1025 - Chola navies defeat the king of Srivijaya.

1041 - Rajendra invades Lanka.

1054 - Rajadhiraja Chola dies in the battle of Koppam against Western Chalukyas.

1070 - Accession of Kulothunga Chola I Pandya revival and Muslim rule.

1251 - Accession of Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan.

1279 - End of the Chola dynasty with the death of Rajendra Chola III.

1268-1310 - Maravarman Kulasekhara Pandya rules in Madurai.

1308 - Malik Kafur a general of Allaudin Khilji invades Devagiri en route to Tamil Nadu.

1310 - Sundara Pandya, son of Kulasekara Pandya kills his father and becomes king. In the
ensuing civil war he is defeated by his brother Vira Pandya.

1311 - Malik Kafur, invades Pandya country and attacks Madurai.

1327-1370 - Madurai under the rule of Madurai Sultanate.

Vijayanagar and Nayak Period

1370 - Bukka, the Vijayanagara ruler and his son Kumara Kamapna capture the entire Tamil

1522 - Portuguese land on the Coromandal coast.

1535 - Achyuta Raya of Vijayanagara appoints Sevappa Nayak, who established the Nayak
dynasty at Tanjavur.

1535-1590 - Sevappa Nayak rules as the first independent Nayak ruler in Tanjavur.

1600-1645 - Ragunatha Nayak, the greatest of the Tanjavur Nayaks.

1609 - the Dutch establish a settlement in Pulicat.

1623-1659 - Tirumalai Nayak rules in Madurai.

1639 - British East India Company purchases Chennapatinam and establishes Fort St. George.

1652 - Tanjavur and Jingi fall to the Bijapur Sultan.

1656 - Mysore army invades Selam against the Madurai Nayak Tirumala.

1675 - Maratha army from Bijapur marches into Tanjavur, Ekoji declares himself king.

1692 - Nawab of Arcot established by Nawab Zulfiqar Ali Khan, a viceroys of the Moghul

1746 - La Bourdonnais of the French East India company attacks and takes Fort St. George.

East India Company

1749 - British regain Fort St. George through the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle arising out of the
War of the Austrian Succession.

1751 - Robert Clive attacks Arcot and takes it with only 500 men.

1756 - The British and the French sign the first Carnatic treaty. Mahommed Ali Walajah, was
recognized as Nawab of the Carnatic.

1759 - French under Thomas Arthur, Comte de Lally, attack Madras.

1760 - Battle of Vandavasi between the British and the French. Birth of Veerapandya

1767 - Hyder Ali, Sultan of Mysore attacks Madras, but defeated by the British at the Battle of

1773 - British Government passes the Regulating Act. The administration of Madras comes
under British Government review.

1777-1832 - Serfoji II rules in Tanjavur.

1799 - Serfoji cedes the Tanjavur kingdom to the British. Kattabomman executed by British.

1803 - Bentinck appointed governor of Madras.

1806 - East India Company's Indian soldiers in Vellore mutiny against Governor Bentinck. 114
British officers killed and 19 mutineers executed.

British Rule

1892 - British Government passes the Indian Councils Act.

1909 - 'Minto-Morley Reforms'. Madras Legistlative Council formed.

1921 - First regional elections held in Madras. Justice party forms government.

1927 - Madras Congress passes a resolution for 'Full Independence'.

1928 - Simon Commission visits Madras. mass protests results in several deaths.

1937 - Congress party under C. Rajagopalachari wins provincial elections and forms
government in Madras.

1938 - E.V. Ramasamy Naicker organises a separatist agitation demanding Dravidanadu
consisting of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.

1941 - Indian Muslim League holds its congress in Madras. Muhammad Ali Jinnah delivers
keynote speech.

1944 - E.V. Ramasamy Naicker and C. N. Annadurai organise Dravidar Kazhagam.

Post-independence Period

1947 - Madras Presidency, comprising of Tamil Nadu and parts of  present day Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka established.

1953 - Madras state comes into being along linguistic lines.

1968 - Widespread agitations in response to the Federal Government's directive of Hindi being
the National Language.

1969 - Madras state is renamed as Tamil Nadu (Land of the Tamils).



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