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Tamils - a Trans State Nation
தமிழ் அகம் - ஓர் உணர்வா, அல்லது இடமா?
Tamil Nadu - தமிழ் நாடு
- an estimated 60 million Tamils live in Tamil Nadu -
Tamil Nadu - Time Line
30,000 BCE : Paleolithic industries in north Tamil Nadu.
8000-3000 BCE : Pre-pottery microlithic industries.
3000-1000 BCE : Neolithic and fine microlithic industries.
1000-300 BCE : Megalithic age.
600 BCE : Tamil Brahmi prevalent as the Tamil script.
250 BCE : Asoka's inscription recording the four kingdoms (Chera, Cholas, Pandya and
Satyaputra) of the ancient Tamil country.
200 BCE : Elara, a Tamil prince and contemporary of Dutte Gamini, rules Lanka.
200 BCE-200 CE - Sangam age during which books of Sangam Literature are created.
150 BCE - Kharavela of Kalinga records his conquest of a federation of Tamil kings in his
130 - Chera king Udayanjeral rules in the Chera country.
175-195 - Gajabahu I of Lanka a contemporary of Chera Senguttuvan and Karikala Chola.
190 - Chera Kadukko Ilanjeral Irumporai rules in the Chera country.
200 - Writing becomes widespread and vattezuttu evolved from the Tamil Brahmi becomes a
mature script for writing Tamil.
210 - Pandya Neduncheliyan rules in Madurai and defeats his enemies at the battle of
300-590 - Kalabhras invade the Tamil country and displace the traditional rulers.
300-500 - Post Sangam period, Tamil epics such as Cilappatikaram written.
Pallava and Pandya
560-580 - Pallava Simhavishnu overthrows the Kalabhras in Tondaimandalam.
560-590 - Pandya Kadungon rules from Madurai and displaces the Kalabhras from the south.
590-630 - Pallava Mahendravarman I rules in Kanchipuram.
610 - Saiva saint Thirunavukkarasar (Appar) converts Mahendravarman from Jainism.
628 - Chalukya Pulakesi II invades the Pallava kingdom and lays siege on Kanchipuram.
630-668 - Pallava Narasimhavarman I (Mamalla) rules in Tondaimandalam.
642 - Pallava Narasimhavarman I launches a counter invasion into the Chalukya country and
sacks Vatapi. Pulakesi is killed in battle.
670-700 - CE-Pandya Arikesari Parankusa Maravarman rules in Madurai.
700-728 - Pallava Rajasimha builds the Kailasanatha temple in Kanchipuram and many of the
shore temples in Mamallapuram.
700-730 - Pandya Ranadhira (Koccadayan) expands the Pandya kingdom into the Kongu
731 - Succession crisis in the Pallava kingdom. Council of ministers select Nandivarman II
(Pallavamalla) (731-796) as the Pallava king.
731-765 - Pandya Maravarman Rajasimha aligns with the Chalukya Vikramaditya II and
attacks the Pallava king Nandivarmam.
735 - Chaluka Vikramaditya II invades the Pallava country and occupies the capital
760 - Pallava Nandivarman II invades and defeats the Ganga kingdom at the battle of
765-815 - Pandya Parantaka Nedunjadaiyan (Varaguna Pandyan) rules in Madurai.
767 - Pandya forces defeat the Pallavas on the south banks of the Kaveri.
800-830 - Varagunan I becomes Pandya king and extends his empire up to Tiruchirapalli by
defeating the Pallava king Dandivarman.
830-862 - Pandya Sirmara Srivallabha rules in Madurai.
840 - Srimara invades Lanka and captures the northern provices of the Lanka king Sena I.
850 - Rise of Vijayalaya Chola in Tanjavur.
846-869 - Pallava Nadivarman III leads an invasion against the Pandya kingdom and defeats
the Pandyas at the battle of Tellaru. Pallava kingdom extnds up to the river Vaigai.
859 - Pandya Srivallaba defeats the Pallavas at a battle at Kumbakonam.
862 - Sinhala forces under Sena II invade the Pandya coutry and sack Madurai. Srimara is
killed in battle.
903 - Aditya Chola defeats the Pallava king Aparajita.
949 - Battle of Takkolam. Rashtrakuta Krishna III defeats the Chola army.
985 - Accession of Rajaraja Chola I.
1010 - Rajaraja completes the Brihadisvara Temple.
1012 - Accession of Rajendra Chola I.
1023 - Rajendra's expedition to the Ganges.
1025 - Chola navies defeat the king of Srivijaya.
1041 - Rajendra invades Lanka.
1054 - Rajadhiraja Chola dies in the battle of Koppam against Western Chalukyas.
1070 - Accession of Kulothunga Chola I Pandya revival and Muslim rule.
1251 - Accession of Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan.
1279 - End of the Chola dynasty with the death of Rajendra Chola III.
1268-1310 - Maravarman Kulasekhara Pandya rules in Madurai.
1308 - Malik Kafur a general of Allaudin Khilji invades Devagiri en route to Tamil Nadu.
1310 - Sundara Pandya, son of Kulasekara Pandya kills his father and becomes king. In the
ensuing civil war he is defeated by his brother Vira Pandya.
1311 - Malik Kafur, invades Pandya country and attacks Madurai.
1327-1370 - Madurai under the rule of Madurai Sultanate.
Vijayanagar and Nayak Period
1370 - Bukka, the Vijayanagara ruler and his son Kumara Kamapna capture the entire Tamil
1522 - Portuguese land on the Coromandal coast.
1535 - Achyuta Raya of Vijayanagara appoints Sevappa Nayak, who established the Nayak
dynasty at Tanjavur.
1535-1590 - Sevappa Nayak rules as the first independent Nayak ruler in Tanjavur.
1600-1645 - Ragunatha Nayak, the greatest of the Tanjavur Nayaks.
1609 - the Dutch establish a settlement in Pulicat.
1623-1659 - Tirumalai Nayak rules in Madurai.
1639 - British East India Company purchases Chennapatinam and establishes Fort St. George.
1652 - Tanjavur and Jingi fall to the Bijapur Sultan.
1656 - Mysore army invades Selam against the Madurai Nayak Tirumala.
1675 - Maratha army from Bijapur marches into Tanjavur, Ekoji declares himself king.
1692 - Nawab of Arcot established by Nawab Zulfiqar Ali Khan, a viceroys of the Moghul
1746 - La Bourdonnais of the French East India company attacks and takes Fort St. George.
East India Company
1749 - British regain Fort St. George through the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle arising out of the
War of the Austrian Succession.
1751 - Robert Clive attacks Arcot and takes it with only 500 men.
1756 - The British and the French sign the first Carnatic treaty. Mahommed Ali Walajah, was
recognized as Nawab of the Carnatic.
1759 - French under Thomas Arthur, Comte de Lally, attack Madras.
1760 - Battle of Vandavasi between the British and the French. Birth of Veerapandya
1767 - Hyder Ali, Sultan of Mysore attacks Madras, but defeated by the British at the Battle of
1773 - British Government passes the Regulating Act. The administration of Madras comes
under British Government review.
1777-1832 - Serfoji II rules in Tanjavur.
1799 - Serfoji cedes the Tanjavur kingdom to the British. Kattabomman executed by British.
1803 - Bentinck appointed governor of Madras.
1806 - East India Company's Indian soldiers in Vellore mutiny against Governor Bentinck. 114
British officers killed and 19 mutineers executed.
1892 - British Government passes the Indian Councils Act.
1909 - 'Minto-Morley Reforms'. Madras Legistlative Council formed.
1921 - First regional elections held in Madras. Justice party forms government.
1927 - Madras Congress passes a resolution for 'Full Independence'.
1928 - Simon Commission visits Madras. mass protests results in several deaths.
1937 - Congress party under C. Rajagopalachari wins provincial elections and forms
government in Madras.
1938 - E.V. Ramasamy Naicker organises a separatist agitation demanding Dravidanadu
consisting of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.
1941 - Indian Muslim League holds its congress in Madras. Muhammad Ali Jinnah delivers
1944 - E.V. Ramasamy Naicker and C. N. Annadurai organise Dravidar Kazhagam.
1947 - Madras Presidency, comprising of Tamil Nadu and parts of present day Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka established.
1953 - Madras state comes into being along linguistic lines.
1968 - Widespread agitations in response to the Federal Government's directive of Hindi being
the National Language.
1969 - Madras state is renamed as Tamil Nadu (Land of the Tamils).