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Home  > International Relations   > Conflict Resolution in an Asymmetric Multi Lateral World > Country Studies > Sudan Peace Process > Sudan Agreement on Security Arrangements During the Interim Period, September 2003

Sudan: Agreement on Security Arrangements
During the Interim Period

Naivasha: 25 September 2003

Whereas the Government of the Republic of the Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement/Sudan People's Liberation Army (the Parties) have been conducting negotiations in Naivasha, Kenya, since 2nd September, 2003 under the auspices of the IGAD Peace Process; and

Whereas the Parties reiterated their commitment to a negotiated, peaceful, comprehensive resolution to the Sudan Conflict within the Unity of Sudan as set forth in the Machakos Protocol of 20th July 2002; and

Now Record That within the above context, the Parties have reached specific agreement on Security Arrangements during the Interim Period, the initialed text of which is annexed hereto and which will be subsequently incorporated into the final Peace Agreement; and

It Is Agreed And Confirmed That the Parties shall immediately resume negotiations on the remaining outstanding issues and subsequently negotiate a comprehensive ceasefire agreement in order to achieve a final, comprehensive Peace Agreement in the Sudan.

Hon. Idris Mohamed Abdelgadir
For: The Government of the Sudan
Cdr. Pa'gan Amum Oklech
For: The Sudan People's Liberation

Witnessed By: Lt. Gen. Lazaro K. Sumbeiywo (Rtd)
Special Envoy
IGAD Sudan Peace Process and
On behalf of the IGAD Envoys

Framework Agreement on Security Arrangements During the Interim Period Between The Government of the Sudan (GOS) and The Sudan People's Liberation Movement/ Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLM/SPLA)

Status of the Two Armed Forces:

In the context of a united Sudan, and should the result of the referendum on self-determination confirm unity, the Parties (the Government of the Sudan and the Sudan People's Liberation Movement and Army) agree to the formation of the future army of Sudan that shall be composed from the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA).

As part of a peace agreement and in order to end the war, the Parties agree that the two forces, the SAF and the SPLA shall remain separate during the Interim Period, and further agree that both forces shall be considered and treated equally as Sudan's National Armed Forces during the Interim Period taking into consideration 1 (c) below.

The parties agree to the principles of proportional downsizing of the forces on both sides, at a suitable time, following the completion of the comprehensive ceasefire arrangements.

The national Armed Forces shall have no internal law and order mandate except in constitutionally specified emergencies.


The parties agree to an internationally monitored ceasefire which shall come into effect from the date of signature of a Comprehensive Peace Agreement. Details of the Ceasefire Agreement shall be worked out by the two parties together with the IGAD mediators and international experts.


The two forces shall be disengaged, separated, encamped and redeployed as will be detailed in the Comprehensive Ceasefire Agreement.

Except for those deployed in the Joint/Integrated Units, the rest of the forces of SAF currently deployed in the South shall be redeployed North of the South/North border of 1/1/1956 under international monitoring and assistance within and up to two and one half years (2 1/2) from the beginning of the pre-Interim Period.

Except for those deployed in the Joint/Integrated Units, the rest of the SPLA forces currently deployed in Nuba Mountains and Southern Blue Nile shall be redeployed South of the South/North border of 1/1/1956 as soon as the Joint/Integrated Units are formed and deployed under international monitoring and assistance.

The SPLM/A undertakes that the demobilized Southern Sudanese from those currently serving in SAF in Southern Sudan shall be absorbed into various institutions of the Government of Southern Sudan along with demobilized SPLA soldiers.

The parties agree to implement with the assistance of the international community DDR programmes for the benefit of all those who will be affected by the reduction, demobilization and downsizing of the forces as agreed in 1(c), 3(d) and 7(b).

Joint/Integrated Units:

There shall be formed Joint/Integrated Units consisting of equal numbers from the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) during the Interim Period. The Joint/Integrated Units shall constitute a nucleus of a post referendum army of Sudan, should the result of the referendum confirm unity, otherwise they would be dissolved and the component parts integrated into their respective forces.

4.1 Elaboration On Joint/Integrated Units:

Their Character:-

They should have a new character based on a common doctrine.

Their Functions:-

They will be a symbol of national unity during the Interim Period.

They will be a symbol of sovereignty during the Interim Period.

They will participate in the defense of the country together with the two forces.

They will provide a nucleus of a post Interim Period future army of the Sudan should the vote of referendum confirm unity.

They shall be involved in the reconstruction of the country.

Size and Deployment:

The size and deployment of the Joint/Integrated Units throughout the Interim Period shall be as indicated below:-

Southern Sudan: twenty four thousands (24,000)

Nuba Mountains: six thousands (6,000)

Southern Blue Nile: six thousands (6,000)

Khartoum: three thousands (3,000)

Eastern Sudan:-

The redeployment of SPLA forces from Eastern Sudan to South of the South/North border of 1/1/1956 shall be completed within one (1) year from the beginning of the pre-Interim period.

The parties shall discuss the issue of establishing Joint/Integrated Units.

Command and Control of the Two Forces:

The Parties agree to establish a Joint Defence Board (JDB) under the Presidency, and shall be comprised of the chiefs of staff of the two forces, their deputies and any number of senior officers to be agreed to by the parties. It shall take its decisions by consensus and it shall be chaired alternately by the respective Chiefs of Staff.

Functions of JDB:

The JDB shall perform the following functions:

Co-ordination between the two forces.

Command of the Joint Integrated Units.

Common Military Doctrine:

The parties shall develop a common military doctrine as a basis for the Joint/Integrated Units as well as a basis for a post Interim Period army of the Sudan, if the referendum vote is in favor of unity. The parties shall develop this common doctrine within one year from the beginning of the Interim Period. During the Interim Period, the training of the SPLA (in the South), the SAF (in the North) and the joint units (in both North and South) will be based on this common doctrine.

Status of Other Armed Groups In the Country:

No armed group allied to either party shall be allowed to operate outside the two forces.

The Parties agree that those mentioned in 7(a) who have the desire and qualify shall be incorporated into the organized forces of either Party (Army, Police, Prisons and Wildlife forces), while the rest shall be reintegrated into the civil service and civil society institutions.

The parties agree to address the status of other armed groups in the country with the view of achieving comprehensive peace and stability in the country and to realize full inclusiveness in the transition process.

National Security Organs and Police forces:

Structures and arrangements affecting all law enforcement organs, especially the Police, and National Security Organs shall be dealt with as part of the power sharing arrangements, and tied where is necessary to the appropriate level of the executive.

Done at Lake Naivasha Simba Lodge

Date: Thursday, September 25th, 2003




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