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Thus have we seen in visions of the wise !."
Tamil Poem in Purananuru, circa 500 B.C 

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Home  > International Relations   > Conflict Resolution in an Asymmetric Multi Lateral World > Country Studies > Bougainville - Papua New Guinea Peace Process

Bougainville - Papua New Guinea Peace Process

[see also Bougainville_Island at Wikipedia]

18 July 1997

The Burnham Declaration

23 January 1998

Lincoln Agreement on Peace, Security and Development on Bougainville

30 August 2001 Bougainville Peace Agreement
20 December 2002 Bougainville Peace Agreement & Sri Lanka
2002 Weaving consensus: The Papua New Guinea � Bougainville peace process - Accord
  Matrix of Bougainvillean negotiation options
  Key points of the Bougainville Peace Agreement

The Agreement describes its structure as 'three pillars' all of them carefully inter-linked and sequenced: autonomy, referendum and disarmament.

  Conflict and peace timeline
  The origins of the conflict - Mary-Louise O�Callaghan
  Constitutional accommodation and conflict prevention
Yash Ghai and Anthony J. Regan
  Early interventions - Peter Sohia
  A Bougainville Interim Government (BIG) perspective on early peace efforts - Martin Miriori
  From Burnham to Buin - Robert Tapi
  Women promoting peace and reconciliation - Lorraine Garasu, CSN
  Phases of the negotiation process - Anthony J. Regan
  Resolving two dimensions of conflict: the dynamics of consent, consensus and compromise - Anthony J. Regan
  �Joint creation� The Bougainville Peace Agreement � and beyond - Edward P. Wolfers
  Reconciliation: my side of the island - James Tanis
21 July 2005 Lessons from a Successful Peace Process in Bougainville, Papua New Guinea, 1997-2005 - Anthony Regan, USIP

Regan asserted that, while examining other peace processes can be extremely helpful, no generally applicable �lessons learned� can be gleaned because, as in Bougainville, each conflict requires original solutions. He strongly emphasized the importance of understanding the context of conflict which includes people�s historic, geographical, political, cultural, and religious characteristics, and contributes to how they perceive, react to, and behave in conflict. He noted with regret that there is so far very little literature on this aspect of culture and conflict resolution. Though the international community often seeks out and embraces formulas for interventions, peace processes, and state-building practices (including �robust� peace-keeping, a specific set of requirements for post-conflict constitutions, and strongly interventionist state-building aid), this can be detrimental to the success of the endeavor. Nevertheless, some of the arrangements in the Bougainville Peace Agreement drew on international conflict resolution precedents from New Caledonia, Hong Kong, and Uganda, and Regan believes that examining, though not imitating, the Bougainville peace process and agreement can be useful for the international community and local actors in other conflicts when trying to form a basis for a sustainable state.



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